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;;; GNU Guix --- Functional package management for GNU
;;; Copyright © 2013 Ludovic Courtès <>
;;; This file is part of GNU Guix.
;;; GNU Guix is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
;;; under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at
;;; your option) any later version.
;;; GNU Guix is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
;;; WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;;; GNU General Public License for more details.
;;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;;; along with GNU Guix. If not, see <>.
(define-module (gnu system vm)
#:use-module (guix config)
#:use-module (guix store)
#:use-module (guix derivations)
#:use-module (guix packages)
#:use-module ((gnu packages base)
#:select (%final-inputs
guile-final gcc-final glibc-final
coreutils findutils grep sed))
#:use-module (gnu packages guile)
#:use-module (gnu packages bash)
#:use-module (gnu packages qemu)
#:use-module (gnu packages parted)
#:use-module (gnu packages zile)
#:use-module (gnu packages grub)
#:use-module (gnu packages linux)
#:use-module (gnu packages linux-initrd)
#:use-module (gnu packages package-management)
#:use-module ((gnu packages make-bootstrap)
#:select (%guile-static-stripped))
#:use-module (gnu packages system)
#:use-module (gnu system shadow)
#:use-module (gnu system linux)
#:use-module (gnu system grub)
#:use-module (gnu system dmd)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-1)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-26)
#:use-module (ice-9 match)
#:export (expression->derivation-in-linux-vm
;;; Commentary:
;;; Tools to evaluate build expressions within virtual machines.
;;; Code:
(define* (expression->derivation-in-linux-vm store name exp
(system (%current-system))
(inputs '())
(linux linux-libre)
(initrd qemu-initrd)
(qemu qemu/smb-shares)
(env-vars '())
(modules '())
(make-disk-image? #f)
(references-graphs #f)
(* 100 (expt 2 20))))
"Evaluate EXP in a QEMU virtual machine running LINUX with INITRD. In the
virtual machine, EXP has access to all of INPUTS from the store; it should put
its output files in the `/xchg' directory, which is copied to the derivation's
output when the VM terminates.
When MAKE-DISK-IMAGE? is true, then create a QEMU disk image of
DISK-IMAGE-SIZE bytes and return it.
When REFERENCES-GRAPHS is true, it must be a list of file name/store path
pairs, as for `derivation'. The files containing the reference graphs are
made available under the /xchg CIFS share."
;; FIXME: Allow use of macros from other modules, as done in
;; `build-expression->derivation'.
(define input-alist
(map (match-lambda
((input (? package? package))
`(,input . ,(package-output store package "out" system)))
((input (? package? package) sub-drv)
`(,input . ,(package-output store package sub-drv system)))
((input (? derivation? drv))
`(,input . ,(derivation->output-path drv)))
((input (? derivation? drv) sub-drv)
`(,input . ,(derivation->output-path drv sub-drv)))
((input (and (? string?) (? store-path?) file))
`(,input . ,file)))
(define exp*
;; EXP, but with INPUTS available.
`(let ((%build-inputs ',input-alist))
(define builder
;; Code that launches the VM that evaluates EXP.
`(let ()
(use-modules (guix build utils)
(srfi srfi-1)
(ice-9 rdelim))
(let ((out (assoc-ref %outputs "out"))
(cu (string-append (assoc-ref %build-inputs "coreutils")
(qemu (string-append (assoc-ref %build-inputs "qemu")
(car (string-split ,system #\-))))
(img (string-append (assoc-ref %build-inputs "qemu")
(linux (string-append (assoc-ref %build-inputs "linux")
(initrd (string-append (assoc-ref %build-inputs "initrd")
(builder (assoc-ref %build-inputs "builder")))
;; XXX: QEMU uses "rm -rf" when it's done to remove the temporary SMB
;; directory, so it really needs `rm' in $PATH.
(setenv "PATH" cu)
,(if make-disk-image?
`(zero? (system* img "create" "image.qcow2"
,(number->string disk-image-size)))
(mkdir "xchg")
;; Copy the reference-graph files under xchg/ so EXP can access it.
,@(match references-graphs
(((graph-files . _) ...)
(map (lambda (file)
`(copy-file ,file
,(string-append "xchg/" file)))
(#f '())))
(and (zero?
(system* qemu "-nographic" "-no-reboot"
"-net" "nic,model=e1000"
"-net" (string-append "user,smb=" (getcwd))
"-kernel" linux
"-initrd" initrd
"-append" (string-append "console=ttyS0 --load="
,@(if make-disk-image?
'("-hda" "image.qcow2")
,(if make-disk-image?
'(copy-file "image.qcow2" ; XXX: who mkdir'd OUT?
(mkdir out)
(copy-recursively "xchg" out)))))))
(let ((user-builder (add-text-to-store store "builder-in-linux-vm"
(object->string exp*)
(->drv (cut package-derivation store <> system))
(coreutils (car (assoc-ref %final-inputs "coreutils"))))
(build-expression->derivation store name system builder
`(("qemu" ,(->drv qemu))
("linux" ,(->drv linux))
("initrd" ,(->drv initrd))
("coreutils" ,(->drv coreutils))
("builder" ,user-builder)
,@(map (match-lambda
((name (? package? package)
sub-drv ...)
`(,name ,(->drv package)
((name (? string? file))
`(,name ,file))
(tuple tuple))
#:env-vars env-vars
#:modules (delete-duplicates
`((guix build utils)
#:guile-for-build guile-for-build
#:references-graphs references-graphs)))
(define* (qemu-image store #:key
(name "qemu-image")
(system (%current-system))
(disk-image-size (* 100 (expt 2 20)))
(initialize-store? #f)
(populate #f)
(inputs '())
(inputs-to-copy '()))
"Return a bootable, stand-alone QEMU image. The returned image is a full
disk image, with a GRUB installation that uses GRUB-CONFIGURATION as its
configuration file.
INPUTS-TO-COPY is a list of inputs (as for packages) whose closure is copied
into the image being built. When INITIALIZE-STORE? is true, initialize the
store database in the image so that Guix can be used in the image.
POPULATE is a list of directives stating directories or symlinks to be created
in the disk image partition. It is evaluated once the image has been
populated with INPUTS-TO-COPY. It can be used to provide additional files,
such as /etc files."
(define input->name+derivation
((name (? package? package))
`(,name . ,(derivation->output-path
(package-derivation store package system))))
((name (? package? package) sub-drv)
`(,name . ,(derivation->output-path
(package-derivation store package system)
((name (? derivation? drv))
`(,name . ,(derivation->output-path drv)))
((name (? derivation? drv) sub-drv)
`(,name . ,(derivation->output-path drv sub-drv)))
((input (and (? string?) (? store-path?) file))
`(,input . ,file))))
store "qemu-image"
`(let ()
(use-modules (ice-9 rdelim)
(srfi srfi-1)
(guix build utils)
(guix build linux-initrd))
(let ((parted (string-append (assoc-ref %build-inputs "parted")
(mkfs (string-append (assoc-ref %build-inputs "e2fsprogs")
(grub (string-append (assoc-ref %build-inputs "grub")
(umount (string-append (assoc-ref %build-inputs "util-linux")
"/bin/umount")) ; XXX: add to Guile
(grub.cfg (assoc-ref %build-inputs "grub.cfg")))
(define (read-reference-graph port)
;; Return a list of store paths from the reference graph at PORT.
;; The data at PORT is the format produced by #:references-graphs.
(let loop ((line (read-line port))
(result '()))
(cond ((eof-object? line)
(delete-duplicates result))
((string-prefix? "/" line)
(loop (read-line port)
(cons line result)))
(loop (read-line port)
(define (things-to-copy)
;; Return the list of store files to copy to the image.
(define (graph-from-file file)
(call-with-input-file file
,(match inputs-to-copy
(((graph-files . _) ...)
`(let* ((graph-files ',(map (cut string-append "/xchg/" <>)
(paths (append-map graph-from-file graph-files)))
(delete-duplicates paths)))
(#f ''())))
;; GRUB is full of shell scripts.
(setenv "PATH"
(string-append (dirname grub) ":"
(assoc-ref %build-inputs "coreutils") "/bin:"
(assoc-ref %build-inputs "findutils") "/bin:"
(assoc-ref %build-inputs "sed") "/bin:"
(assoc-ref %build-inputs "grep") "/bin:"
(assoc-ref %build-inputs "gawk") "/bin"))
(display "creating partition table...\n")
(and (zero? (system* parted "/dev/vda" "mklabel" "msdos"
"mkpart" "primary" "ext2" "1MiB"
,(format #f "~aB"
(- disk-image-size
(* 5 (expt 2 20))))))
(display "creating ext3 partition...\n")
(and (zero? (system* mkfs "-F" "/dev/vda1"))
(let ((store (string-append "/fs" ,%store-directory)))
(display "mounting partition...\n")
(mkdir "/fs")
(mount "/dev/vda1" "/fs" "ext3")
(mkdir-p "/fs/boot/grub")
(symlink grub.cfg "/fs/boot/grub/grub.cfg")
;; Populate the image's store.
(mkdir-p store)
(chmod store #o1775)
(for-each (lambda (thing)
(copy-recursively thing
(string-append "/fs"
(cons grub.cfg (things-to-copy)))
;; Populate /dev.
(make-essential-device-nodes #:root "/fs")
;; Optionally, register the inputs in the image's store.
(let* ((guix (assoc-ref %build-inputs "guix"))
(register (string-append guix
,@(if initialize-store?
(match inputs-to-copy
(((graph-files . _) ...)
(map (lambda (closure)
`(system* register "--prefix" "/fs"
,(string-append "/xchg/"
;; Evaluate the POPULATE directives.
,@(let loop ((directives populate)
(statements '()))
(match directives
(reverse statements))
((('directory name) rest ...)
(loop rest
(cons `(mkdir-p ,(string-append "/fs" name))
((('directory name uid gid) rest ...)
(let ((dir (string-append "/fs" name)))
(loop rest
(cons* `(chown ,dir ,uid ,gid)
`(mkdir-p ,dir)
(((new '-> old) rest ...)
(loop rest
(cons `(symlink ,old
,(string-append "/fs" new))
(and=> (assoc-ref %build-inputs "populate")
(lambda (populate)
(chdir "/fs")
(primitive-load populate)
(chdir "/")))
(display "clearing file timestamps...\n")
(for-each (lambda (file)
(let ((s (lstat file)))
;; XXX: Guile uses libc's 'utime' function
;; (not 'futime'), so the timestamp of
;; symlinks cannot be changed, and there
;; are symlinks here pointing to
;; /nix/store, which is the host,
;; read-only store.
(unless (eq? (stat:type s) 'symlink)
(utime file 0 0 0 0))))
(find-files "/fs" ".*"))
(and (zero?
(system* grub "--no-floppy"
"--boot-directory" "/fs/boot"
(zero? (system* umount "/fs"))
#:system system
#:inputs `(("parted" ,parted)
("grub" ,grub)
("e2fsprogs" ,e2fsprogs)
("grub.cfg" ,grub-configuration)
;; For shell scripts.
("sed" ,(car (assoc-ref %final-inputs "sed")))
("grep" ,(car (assoc-ref %final-inputs "grep")))
("coreutils" ,(car (assoc-ref %final-inputs "coreutils")))
("findutils" ,(car (assoc-ref %final-inputs "findutils")))
("gawk" ,(car (assoc-ref %final-inputs "gawk")))
("util-linux" ,util-linux)
,@(if initialize-store?
`(("guix" ,guix))
#:make-disk-image? #t
#:disk-image-size disk-image-size
#:references-graphs (map input->name+derivation inputs-to-copy)
#:modules '((guix build utils)
(guix build linux-initrd))))
;;; Stand-alone VM image.
(define* (union store inputs
#:key (guile (%guile-for-build)) (system (%current-system))
(name "union"))
"Return a derivation that builds the union of INPUTS. INPUTS is a list of
input tuples."
(define builder
(use-modules (guix build union))
(setvbuf (current-output-port) _IOLBF)
(setvbuf (current-error-port) _IOLBF)
(let ((output (assoc-ref %outputs "out"))
(inputs (map cdr %build-inputs)))
(format #t "building union `~a' with ~a packages...~%"
output (length inputs))
(union-build output inputs))))
(build-expression->derivation store name system builder
(map (match-lambda
((name (? package? p))
`(,name ,(package-derivation store p
((name (? package? p) output)
`(,name ,(package-derivation store p
(x x))
#:modules '((guix build union))
#:guile-for-build guile))
(define (system-qemu-image store)
"Return the derivation of a QEMU image of the GNU system."
(define motd
(add-text-to-store store "motd" "
Happy birthday, GNU!
(define %pam-services
;; Services known to PAM.
(list %pam-other-services
(unix-pam-service "login"
#:allow-empty-passwords? #t
#:motd motd)))
(define %dmd-services
;; Services run by dmd.
(list (host-name-service store "gnu")
(mingetty-service store "tty1")
(mingetty-service store "tty2")
(mingetty-service store "tty3")
(mingetty-service store "tty4")
(mingetty-service store "tty5")
(mingetty-service store "tty6")
(syslog-service store)
(guix-service store)
(nscd-service store)
;; QEMU networking settings.
(static-networking-service store "eth0" ""
#:gateway "")))
(define build-user-gid 30000)
(define build-accounts
(guix-build-accounts store 10 #:gid build-user-gid))
(define resolv.conf
;; Name resolution for default QEMU settings.
(add-text-to-store store "resolv.conf"
(define etc-services
(string-append (package-output store net-base) "/etc/services"))
(define etc-protocols
(string-append (package-output store net-base) "/etc/protocols"))
(define etc-rpc
(string-append (package-output store net-base) "/etc/rpc"))
(parameterize ((%guile-for-build (package-derivation store guile-final)))
(let* ((bash-drv (package-derivation store bash))
(bash-file (string-append (derivation->output-path bash-drv)
(dmd-drv (package-derivation store dmd))
(dmd-file (string-append (derivation->output-path dmd-drv)
(dmd-conf (dmd-configuration-file store %dmd-services))
(accounts (cons* (user-account
(name "root")
(password "")
(uid 0) (gid 0)
(comment "System administrator")
(home-directory "/")
(shell bash-file))
(name "guest")
(password "")
(uid 1000) (gid 100)
(comment "Guest of GNU")
(home-directory "/home/guest")
(shell bash-file))
(passwd (passwd-file store accounts))
(shadow (passwd-file store accounts #:shadow? #t))
(group (group-file store
(list (user-group
(name "root")
(id 0))
(name "users")
(id 100)
(members '("guest")))
(name "guixbuild")
(id build-user-gid)
(members (map user-account-name
(pam.d-drv (pam-services->directory store %pam-services))
(pam.d (derivation->output-path pam.d-drv))
(packages `(("coreutils" ,coreutils)
("bash" ,bash)
("guile" ,guile-2.0)
("dmd" ,dmd)
("gcc" ,gcc-final)
("libc" ,glibc-final)
("inetutils" ,inetutils)
("findutils" ,findutils)
("grep" ,grep)
("sed" ,sed)
("procps" ,procps)
("psmisc" ,psmisc)
("zile" ,zile)
("guix" ,guix)))
;; TODO: Replace with a real profile with a manifest.
;; TODO: Generate bashrc from packages' search-paths.
(profile-drv (union store packages
#:name "default-profile"))
(profile (derivation->output-path profile-drv))
(bashrc (add-text-to-store store "bashrc"
(string-append "
export PS1='\\u@\\h\\$ '
export PATH=$HOME/.guix-profile/bin:" profile "/bin:" profile "/sbin
export CPATH=$HOME/.guix-profile/include:" profile "/include
export LIBRARY_PATH=$HOME/.guix-profile/lib:" profile "/lib
alias ls='ls -p --color'
alias ll='ls -l'
(issue (add-text-to-store store "issue" "
This is an alpha preview of the GNU system. Welcome.
This image features the GNU Guix package manager, which was used to
build it ( The init system is
GNU dmd (
You can log in as 'guest' or 'root' with no password.
(populate `((directory "/nix/store" 0 ,build-user-gid)
(directory "/etc")
(directory "/var/log") ; for dmd
(directory "/var/run/nscd")
("/etc/shadow" -> ,shadow)
("/etc/passwd" -> ,passwd)
("/etc/group" -> ,group)
("/etc/login.defs" -> "/dev/null")
("/etc/pam.d" -> ,pam.d)
("/etc/resolv.conf" -> ,resolv.conf)
("/etc/profile" -> ,bashrc)
("/etc/issue" -> ,issue)
("/etc/services" -> ,etc-services)
("/etc/protocols" -> ,etc-protocols)
("/etc/rpc" -> ,etc-rpc)
(directory "/var/nix/gcroots")
("/var/nix/gcroots/default-profile" -> ,profile)
(directory "/tmp")
(directory "/var/nix/profiles/per-user/root" 0 0)
(directory "/var/nix/profiles/per-user/guest"
1000 100)
(directory "/home/guest" 1000 100)))
(out (derivation->output-path
(package-derivation store mingetty)))
(boot (add-text-to-store store "boot"
`(execl ,dmd-file "dmd"
"--config" ,dmd-conf))))
(entries (list (menu-entry
(label (string-append
"GNU System with Linux-Libre "
(package-version linux-libre)
" (technology preview)"))
(linux linux-libre)
(linux-arguments `("--root=/dev/vda1"
,(string-append "--load=" boot)))
(initrd gnu-system-initrd))))
(grub.cfg (grub-configuration-file store entries)))
(qemu-image store
#:grub-configuration grub.cfg
#:populate populate
#:disk-image-size (* 550 (expt 2 20))
#:initialize-store? #t
#:inputs-to-copy `(("boot" ,boot)
("linux" ,linux-libre)
("initrd" ,gnu-system-initrd)
("pam.d" ,pam.d-drv)
("profile" ,profile-drv)
;; Configuration.
("dmd.conf" ,dmd-conf)
("etc-pam.d" ,pam.d-drv)
("etc-passwd" ,passwd)
("etc-shadow" ,shadow)
("etc-group" ,group)
("etc-resolv.conf" ,resolv.conf)
("etc-bashrc" ,bashrc)
("etc-issue" ,issue)
("etc-motd" ,motd)
("net-base" ,net-base)
,@(append-map service-inputs
;;; vm.scm ends here