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;;; GNU Guix --- Functional package management for GNU
;;; Copyright © 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 Ludovic Courtès <ludo@gnu.org>
;;; Copyright © 2015 Mark H Weaver <mhw@netris.org>
;;; This file is part of GNU Guix.
;;; GNU Guix is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
;;; under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at
;;; your option) any later version.
;;; GNU Guix is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
;;; WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;;; GNU General Public License for more details.
;;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;;; along with GNU Guix. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
(define-module (gnu build activation)
#:use-module (gnu build linux-boot)
#:use-module (guix build utils)
#:use-module (ice-9 ftw)
#:use-module (ice-9 match)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-1)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-26)
#:export (activate-users+groups
;;; Commentary:
;;; This module provides "activation" helpers. Activation is the process that
;;; consists in setting up system-wide files and directories so that an
;;; 'operating-system' configuration becomes active.
;;; Code:
(define (enumerate thunk)
"Return the list of values returned by THUNK until it returned #f."
(let loop ((entry (thunk))
(result '()))
(if (not entry)
(reverse result)
(loop (thunk) (cons entry result)))))
(define (current-users)
"Return the passwd entries for all the currently defined user accounts."
(enumerate getpwent))
(define (current-groups)
"Return the group entries for all the currently defined user groups."
(enumerate getgrent))
(define* (add-group name #:key gid password system?
(log-port (current-error-port)))
"Add NAME as a user group, with the given numeric GID if specified."
;; Use 'groupadd' from the Shadow package.
(format log-port "adding group '~a'...~%" name)
(let ((args `(,@(if gid `("-g" ,(number->string gid)) '())
,@(if password `("-p" ,password) '())
,@(if system? `("--system") '())
(zero? (apply system* "groupadd" args))))
(define %skeleton-directory
;; Directory containing skeleton files for new accounts.
;; Note: keep the trailing '/' so that 'scandir' enters it.
(define (dot-or-dot-dot? file)
(member file '("." "..")))
(define* (copy-account-skeletons home
(directory %skeleton-directory)
uid gid)
"Copy the account skeletons from DIRECTORY to HOME. When UID is an integer,
make it the owner of all the files created; likewise for GID."
(define (set-owner file)
(when (or uid gid)
(chown file (or uid -1) (or gid -1))))
(let ((files (scandir directory (negate dot-or-dot-dot?)
(mkdir-p home)
(set-owner home)
(for-each (lambda (file)
(let ((target (string-append home "/" file)))
(copy-recursively (string-append directory "/" file)
#:log (%make-void-port "w"))
(for-each set-owner
(find-files target (const #t)
#:directories? #t))
(make-file-writable target)))
(define* (make-skeletons-writable home
#:optional (directory %skeleton-directory))
"Make sure that the files that have been copied from DIRECTORY to HOME are
owner-writable in HOME."
(let ((files (scandir directory (negate dot-or-dot-dot?)
(for-each (lambda (file)
(let ((target (string-append home "/" file)))
(when (file-exists? target)
(make-file-writable target))))
(define* (add-user name group
#:key uid comment home create-home?
shell password system?
(supplementary-groups '())
(log-port (current-error-port)))
"Create an account for user NAME part of GROUP, with the specified
properties. Return #t on success."
(format log-port "adding user '~a'...~%" name)
(if (and uid (zero? uid))
;; 'useradd' fails with "Cannot determine your user name" if the root
;; account doesn't exist. Thus, for bootstrapping purposes, create that
;; one manually.
(let ((home (or home "/root")))
(call-with-output-file "/etc/shadow"
(cut format <> "~a::::::::~%" name))
(call-with-output-file "/etc/passwd"
(cut format <> "~a:x:~a:~a:~a:~a:~a~%"
name "0" "0" comment home shell))
(chmod "/etc/shadow" #o600)
(copy-account-skeletons home)
(chmod home #o700)
;; Use 'useradd' from the Shadow package.
(let ((args `(,@(if uid `("-u" ,(number->string uid)) '())
"-g" ,(if (number? group) (number->string group) group)
,@(if (pair? supplementary-groups)
`("-G" ,(string-join supplementary-groups ","))
,@(if comment `("-c" ,comment) '())
,@(if (and home create-home?)
(if (file-exists? home)
`("-d" ,home) ; avoid warning from 'useradd'
`("-d" ,home "--create-home"))
,@(if shell `("-s" ,shell) '())
,@(if password `("-p" ,password) '())
,@(if system? '("--system") '())
(and (zero? (apply system* "useradd" args))
;; Since /etc/skel is a link to a directory in the store where
;; all files have the writable bit cleared, and since 'useradd'
;; preserves permissions when it copies them, explicitly make
;; them writable.
(make-skeletons-writable home)
(define* (modify-user name group
#:key uid comment home create-home?
shell password system?
(supplementary-groups '())
(log-port (current-error-port)))
"Modify user account NAME to have all the given settings."
;; Use 'usermod' from the Shadow package.
(let ((args `(,@(if uid `("-u" ,(number->string uid)) '())
"-g" ,(if (number? group) (number->string group) group)
,@(if (pair? supplementary-groups)
`("-G" ,(string-join supplementary-groups ","))
,@(if comment `("-c" ,comment) '())
;; Don't use '--move-home'.
,@(if home `("-d" ,home) '())
,@(if shell `("-s" ,shell) '())
(zero? (apply system* "usermod" args))))
(define* (delete-user name #:key (log-port (current-error-port)))
"Remove user account NAME. Return #t on success. This may fail if NAME is
logged in."
(format log-port "deleting user '~a'...~%" name)
(zero? (system* "userdel" name)))
(define* (delete-group name #:key (log-port (current-error-port)))
"Remove group NAME. Return #t on success."
(format log-port "deleting group '~a'...~%" name)
(zero? (system* "groupdel" name)))
(define* (ensure-user name group
#:key uid comment home create-home?
shell password system?
(supplementary-groups '())
(log-port (current-error-port))
#:rest rest)
"Make sure user NAME exists and has the relevant settings."
(if (false-if-exception (getpwnam name))
(apply modify-user name group rest)
(apply add-user name group rest)))
(define (activate-users+groups users groups)
"Make sure the accounts listed in USERS and the user groups listed in GROUPS
are all available.
Each item in USERS is a list of all the characteristics of a user account;
each item in GROUPS is a tuple with the group name, group password or #f, and
numeric gid or #f."
(define (touch file)
(close-port (open-file file "a0b")))
(define activate-user
((name uid group supplementary-groups comment home create-home?
shell password system?)
(let ((profile-dir (string-append "/var/guix/profiles/per-user/"
(ensure-user name group
#:uid uid
#:system? system?
#:supplementary-groups supplementary-groups
#:comment comment
#:home home
;; Home directories of non-system accounts are created by
;; 'activate-user-home'.
#:create-home? (and create-home? system?)
#:shell shell
#:password password)
(unless system?
;; Create the profile directory for the new account.
(let ((pw (getpwnam name)))
(mkdir-p profile-dir)
(chown profile-dir (passwd:uid pw) (passwd:gid pw))))))))
;; 'groupadd' aborts if the file doesn't already exist.
(touch "/etc/group")
;; Allow home directories to be created under /var/lib.
(mkdir-p "/var/lib")
;; Create the root account so we can use 'useradd' and 'groupadd'.
(activate-user (find (match-lambda
((name (? zero?) _ ...) #t)
(_ #f))
;; Then create the groups.
(for-each (match-lambda
((name password gid system?)
(unless (false-if-exception (getgrnam name))
(add-group name
#:gid gid #:password password
#:system? system?))))
;; Create the other user accounts.
(for-each activate-user users)
;; Finally, delete extra user accounts and groups.
(for-each delete-user
(lset-difference string=?
(map passwd:name (current-users))
(match users
(((names . _) ...)
(for-each delete-group
(lset-difference string=?
(map group:name (current-groups))
(match groups
(((names . _) ...)
(define (activate-user-home users)
"Create and populate the home directory of USERS, a list of tuples, unless
they already exist."
(define ensure-user-home
((name uid group supplementary-groups comment home create-home?
shell password system?)
;; The home directories of system accounts are created during
;; activation, not here.
(unless (or (not home) (not create-home?) system?
(directory-exists? home))
(let* ((pw (getpwnam name))
(uid (passwd:uid pw))
(gid (passwd:gid pw)))
(mkdir-p home)
(chown home uid gid)
(unless system?
(copy-account-skeletons home
#:uid uid #:gid gid)))))))
(for-each ensure-user-home users))
(define (activate-etc etc)
"Install ETC, a directory in the store, as the source of static files for
;; /etc is a mixture of static and dynamic settings. Here is where we
;; initialize it from the static part.
(define (rm-f file)
(false-if-exception (delete-file file)))
(format #t "populating /etc from ~a...~%" etc)
(mkdir-p "/etc")
;; Create the /etc/ssl -> /run/current-system/profile/etc/ssl symlink. This
;; symlink, to a target outside of the store, probably doesn't belong in the
;; static 'etc' store directory. However, if it were to be put there,
;; beware that if /run/current-system/profile/etc/ssl doesn't exist at the
;; time of activation (e.g. when installing a fresh system), the call to
;; 'file-is-directory?' below will fail because it uses 'stat', not 'lstat'.
(rm-f "/etc/ssl")
(symlink "/run/current-system/profile/etc/ssl" "/etc/ssl")
(rm-f "/etc/static")
(symlink etc "/etc/static")
(for-each (lambda (file)
(let ((target (string-append "/etc/" file))
(source (string-append "/etc/static/" file)))
(rm-f target)
;; Things such as /etc/sudoers must be regular files, not
;; symlinks; furthermore, they could be modified behind our
;; back---e.g., with 'visudo'. Thus, make a copy instead of
;; symlinking them.
(if (file-is-directory? source)
(symlink source target)
(copy-file source target))
;; XXX: Dirty hack to meet sudo's expectations.
(when (string=? (basename target) "sudoers")
(chmod target #o440))))
(scandir etc (negate dot-or-dot-dot?)
;; The default is 'string-locale<?', but we don't have
;; it when run from the initrd's statically-linked
;; Guile.
(define %setuid-directory
;; Place where setuid programs are stored.
(define (activate-setuid-programs programs)
"Turn PROGRAMS, a list of file names, into setuid programs stored under
(define (make-setuid-program prog)
(let ((target (string-append %setuid-directory
"/" (basename prog))))
(copy-file prog target)
(chown target 0 0)
(chmod target #o6555)))
(format #t "setting up setuid programs in '~a'...~%"
(if (file-exists? %setuid-directory)
(for-each (compose delete-file
(cut string-append %setuid-directory "/" <>))
(scandir %setuid-directory
(lambda (file)
(not (member file '("." ".."))))
(mkdir-p %setuid-directory))
(for-each make-setuid-program programs))
(define (activate-special-files special-files)
"Install the files listed in SPECIAL-FILES. Each element of SPECIAL-FILES
is a pair where the first element is the name of the special file and the
second element is the name it should appear at, such as:
((\"/bin/sh\" \"/gnu/store/…-bash/bin/sh\")
(\"/usr/bin/env\" \"/gnu/store/…-coreutils/bin/env\"))
(define install-special-file
((target file)
(let ((pivot (string-append target ".new")))
(mkdir-p (dirname target))
(symlink file pivot)
(rename-file pivot target)))))
(for-each install-special-file special-files))
(define (activate-modprobe modprobe)
"Tell the kernel to use MODPROBE to load modules."
(call-with-output-file "/proc/sys/kernel/modprobe"
(lambda (port)
(display modprobe port))))
(define (activate-firmware directory)
"Tell the kernel to look for device firmware under DIRECTORY. This
mechanism bypasses udev: it allows Linux to handle firmware loading directly
by itself, without having to resort to a \"user helper\"."
(call-with-output-file "/sys/module/firmware_class/parameters/path"
(lambda (port)
(display directory port))))
(define (activate-ptrace-attach)
"Allow users to PTRACE_ATTACH their own processes.
This works around a regression introduced in the default \"security\" policy
found in Linux 3.4 onward that prevents users from attaching to their own
processes--see Yama.txt in the Linux source tree for the rationale. This
sounds like an unacceptable restriction for little or no security
(let ((file "/proc/sys/kernel/yama/ptrace_scope"))
(when (file-exists? file)
(call-with-output-file file
(lambda (port)
(display 0 port))))))
(define %current-system
;; The system that is current (a symlink.) This is not necessarily the same
;; as the system we booted (aka. /run/booted-system) because we can re-build
;; a new system configuration and activate it, without rebooting.
(define (boot-time-system)
"Return the '--system' argument passed on the kernel command line."
(find-long-option "--system" (linux-command-line)))
(define* (activate-current-system
#:optional (system (or (getenv "GUIX_NEW_SYSTEM")
"Atomically make SYSTEM the current system."
;; The 'GUIX_NEW_SYSTEM' environment variable is used as a way for 'guix
;; system reconfigure' to pass the file name of the new system.
(format #t "making '~a' the current system...~%" system)
;; Atomically make SYSTEM current.
(let ((new (string-append %current-system ".new")))
(symlink system new)
(rename-file new %current-system)))
;;; activation.scm ends here