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;;; GNU Guix --- Functional package management for GNU
;;; Copyright © 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 Ludovic Courtès <>
;;; Copyright © 2015 Mark H Weaver <>
;;; Copyright © 2016 Andreas Enge <>
;;; Copyright © 2017 Marius Bakke <>
;;; Copyright © 2017, 2019 Tobias Geerinckx-Rice <>
;;; Copyright © 2020 Florian Pelz <>
;;; This file is part of GNU Guix.
;;; GNU Guix is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
;;; under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at
;;; your option) any later version.
;;; GNU Guix is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
;;; WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;;; GNU General Public License for more details.
;;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;;; along with GNU Guix. If not, see <>.
(define-module (gnu system install)
#:use-module (gnu)
#:use-module (gnu system)
#:use-module (gnu bootloader u-boot)
#:use-module (guix gexp)
#:use-module (guix store)
#:use-module (guix monads)
#:use-module (guix modules)
#:use-module ((guix packages) #:select (package-version))
#:use-module ((guix store) #:select (%store-prefix))
#:use-module (gnu installer)
#:use-module (gnu system locale)
#:use-module (gnu services dbus)
#:use-module (gnu services networking)
#:use-module (gnu services shepherd)
#:use-module (gnu services ssh)
#:use-module (gnu packages admin)
#:use-module (gnu packages bash)
#:use-module (gnu packages bootloaders)
#:use-module (gnu packages certs)
#:use-module (gnu packages file-systems)
#:use-module (gnu packages fonts)
#:use-module (gnu packages fontutils)
#:use-module (gnu packages guile)
#:use-module (gnu packages linux)
#:use-module (gnu packages ssh)
#:use-module (gnu packages cryptsetup)
#:use-module (gnu packages package-management)
#:use-module (gnu packages disk)
#:use-module (gnu packages texinfo)
#:use-module (gnu packages compression)
#:use-module (gnu packages nvi)
#:use-module (gnu packages xorg)
#:use-module (ice-9 match)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-26)
#:export (installation-os
;;; Commentary:
;;; This module provides an 'operating-system' definition for use on images
;;; for USB sticks etc., for the installation of the GNU system.
;;; Code:
;;; Documentation service.
(define %installation-node-names
;; Translated name of the "System Installation" node of the manual. Ideally
;; we'd extract it from the 'guix-manual' gettext domain, but that one is
;; usually not available at run time, hence this hack.
'(("de" . "Systeminstallation")
("en" . "System Installation")
("es" . "Instalación del sistema")
("fr" . "Installation du système")
("ru" . "Установка системы")))
(define (log-to-info tty user)
"Return a script that spawns the Info reader on the right section of the
(program-file "log-to-info"
#~(let* ((tty (open-file #$(string-append "/dev/" tty)
(locale (cadr (command-line)))
(language (string-take locale
(string-index locale #\_)))
(infodir "/run/current-system/profile/share/info")
(per-lang (string-append infodir "/guix." language
(file (if (file-exists? per-lang)
(string-append infodir "/")))
(node (or (assoc-ref '#$%installation-node-names
"System Installation")))
(redirect-port tty (current-output-port))
(redirect-port tty (current-error-port))
(redirect-port tty (current-input-port))
(let ((pw (getpwnam #$user)))
(setgid (passwd:gid pw))
(setuid (passwd:uid pw)))
;; 'gunzip' is needed to decompress the doc.
(setenv "PATH" (string-append #$gzip "/bin"))
;; Change this process' locale so that command-line
;; arguments to 'info' are properly encoded.
(catch #t
(lambda ()
(setlocale LC_ALL locale)
(setenv "LC_ALL" locale))
(lambda _
;; Sometimes LOCALE itself is not available. In that
;; case pick the one UTF-8 locale that's known to work
;; instead of failing.
(setlocale LC_ALL "en_US.utf8")
(setenv "LC_ALL" "en_US.utf8")))
(execl #$(file-append info-reader "/bin/info")
"info" "-d" infodir "-f" file "-n" node))))
(define (documentation-shepherd-service tty)
(list (shepherd-service
(provision (list (symbol-append 'term- (string->symbol tty))))
(requirement '(user-processes host-name udev virtual-terminal))
(start #~(lambda* (#:optional (locale "en_US.utf8"))
(list #$(log-to-info tty "documentation") locale)
(stop #~(make-kill-destructor)))))
(define %documentation-users
;; User account for the Info viewer.
(list (user-account (name "documentation")
(system? #t)
(group "nogroup")
(home-directory "/var/empty"))))
(define documentation-service-type
;; Documentation viewer service.
(service-type (name 'documentation)
(list (service-extension shepherd-root-service-type
(service-extension account-service-type
(const %documentation-users))))
(description "Run the Info reader on a tty.")))
(define %backing-directory
;; Sub-directory used as the backing store for copy-on-write.
(define (make-cow-store target)
"Return a gexp that makes the store copy-on-write, using TARGET as the
backing store. This is useful when TARGET is on a hard disk, whereas the
current store is on a RAM disk."
(define (set-store-permissions directory)
;; Set the right perms on DIRECTORY to use it as the store.
(chown #$directory 0 30000) ;use the fixed 'guixbuild' GID
(chmod #$directory #o1775)))
;; Bind-mount TARGET's /tmp in case we need space to build things.
(let ((tmpdir (string-append #$target "/tmp")))
(mkdir-p tmpdir)
(mount tmpdir "/tmp" "none" MS_BIND))
(let* ((rw-dir (string-append target #$%backing-directory))
(work-dir (string-append rw-dir "/../.overlayfs-workdir")))
(mkdir-p rw-dir)
(mkdir-p work-dir)
(mkdir-p "/.rw-store")
#$(set-store-permissions #~rw-dir)
#$(set-store-permissions "/.rw-store")
;; Mount the overlay, then atomically make it the store.
(mount "none" "/.rw-store" "overlay" 0
(string-append "lowerdir=" #$(%store-prefix) ","
"upperdir=" rw-dir ","
"workdir=" work-dir))
(mount "/.rw-store" #$(%store-prefix) "" MS_MOVE)
(rmdir "/.rw-store"))))
(define cow-store-service-type
(lambda _
(requirement '(root-file-system user-processes))
(provision '(cow-store))
"Make the store copy-on-write, with writes going to \
the given target.")
;; This is meant to be explicitly started by the user.
(auto-start? #f)
(start #~(case-lambda
#$(make-cow-store #~target)
;; Do nothing, and mark the service as stopped.
(stop #~(lambda (target)
;; Delete the temporary directory, but leave everything
;; mounted as there may still be processes using it since
;; 'user-processes' doesn't depend on us. The 'user-file-systems'
;; service will unmount TARGET eventually.
(string-append target #$%backing-directory))))))))
(define (cow-store-service)
"Return a service that makes the store copy-on-write, such that writes go to
the user's target storage device rather than on the RAM disk."
;; See <> for the initial report.
(service cow-store-service-type 'mooooh!))
(define (/etc/configuration-files _)
"Return a list of tuples representing configuration templates to add to
(define directory
(computed-file "configuration-templates"
(with-imported-modules '((guix build utils))
(mkdir #$output)
(for-each (lambda (file target)
(copy-file file
(string-append #$output "/"
'(#$(local-file "examples/bare-bones.tmpl")
#$(local-file "examples/beaglebone-black.tmpl")
#$(local-file "examples/desktop.tmpl")
#$(local-file "examples/lightweight-desktop.tmpl"))
`(("configuration" ,directory)))
(define configuration-template-service-type
(service-type (name 'configuration-template)
(list (service-extension etc-service-type
(define %configuration-template-service
(service configuration-template-service-type #t))
(define %nscd-minimal-caches
;; Minimal in-memory caching policy for nscd.
(list (nscd-cache (database 'hosts)
(positive-time-to-live (* 3600 12))
;; Do not cache lookup failures at all since they are
;; quite likely (for instance when someone tries to ping a
;; host before networking is functional.)
(negative-time-to-live 0)
(persistent? #f)
(max-database-size (* 5 (expt 2 20)))))) ;5 MiB
;; These define a service to load the uvesafb kernel module with the
;; appropriate options. The GUI installer needs it when the machine does not
;; support Kernel Mode Setting. Otherwise kmscon is missing /dev/fb0.
(define (uvesafb-shepherd-service _)
(list (shepherd-service
(documentation "Load the uvesafb kernel module if needed.")
(provision '(maybe-uvesafb))
(requirement '(file-systems))
(start #~(lambda ()
;; uvesafb is only supported on x86 and x86_64.
(or (not (and (string-suffix? "linux-gnu" %host-type)
(or (string-prefix? "x86_64" %host-type)
(string-prefix? "i686" %host-type))))
(file-exists? "/dev/fb0")
(invoke #+(file-append kmod "/bin/modprobe")
(string-append "v86d=" #$v86d "/sbin/v86d")
(respawn? #f)
(one-shot? #t))))
(define uvesafb-service-type
(name 'uvesafb)
(list (service-extension shepherd-root-service-type
"Load the @code{uvesafb} kernel module with the right options.")
(default-value #t)))
(define %installation-services
;; List of services of the installation system.
(let ((motd (plain-file "motd" "
\x1b[1;37mWelcome to the installation of GNU Guix!\x1b[0m
Using this shell, you can carry out the installation process \"manually.\"
Access documentation at any time by pressing Alt-F2.\x1b[0m
(define (normal-tty tty)
(mingetty-service (mingetty-configuration (tty tty)
(auto-login "root")
(login-pause? #t))))
(define bare-bones-os
(load "examples/bare-bones.tmpl"))
(list (service virtual-terminal-service-type)
(service kmscon-service-type
(virtual-terminal "tty1")
(login-program (installer-program))))
(login-service (login-configuration
(motd motd)))
;; Documentation. The manual is in UTF-8, but
;; 'console-font-service' sets up Unicode support and loads a font
;; with all the useful glyphs like em dash and quotation marks.
(service documentation-service-type "tty2")
;; Documentation add-on.
;; A bunch of 'root' ttys.
(normal-tty "tty3")
(normal-tty "tty4")
(normal-tty "tty5")
(normal-tty "tty6")
;; The usual services.
;; The build daemon. Register the default substitute server key(s)
;; as trusted to allow the installation process to use substitutes by
;; default.
(service guix-service-type
(guix-configuration (authorize-key? #t)))
;; Start udev so that useful device nodes are available.
;; Use device-mapper rules for cryptsetup & co; enable the CRDA for
;; regulations-compliant WiFi access.
(udev-service #:rules (list lvm2 crda))
;; Add the 'cow-store' service, which users have to start manually
;; since it takes the installation directory as an argument.
;; Install Unicode support and a suitable font.
(service console-font-service-type
(map (match-lambda
;; Use a font that contains characters such as
;; curly quotes as found in the manual.
'("tty2" . "LatGrkCyr-8x16"))
;; Use a font that doesn't have more than 256
;; glyphs so that we can use colors with varying
;; brightness levels (see note in setfont(8)).
`(,tty . "lat9u-16")))
'("tty1" "tty2" "tty3" "tty4" "tty5" "tty6")))
;; To facilitate copy/paste.
(service gpm-service-type)
;; Add an SSH server to facilitate remote installs.
(service openssh-service-type
(port-number 22)
(permit-root-login #t)
;; The root account is passwordless, so make sure
;; a password is set before allowing logins.
(allow-empty-passwords? #f)
(password-authentication? #t)
;; Don't start it upfront.
(%auto-start? #f)))
;; Since this is running on a USB stick with a overlayfs as the root
;; file system, use an appropriate cache configuration.
(nscd-service (nscd-configuration
(caches %nscd-minimal-caches)))
;; Having /bin/sh is a good idea. In particular it allows Tramp
;; connections to this system to work.
(service special-files-service-type
`(("/bin/sh" ,(file-append bash "/bin/sh"))))
;; Loopback device, needed by OpenSSH notably.
(service static-networking-service-type
(list (static-networking (interface "lo")
(ip "")
(requirement '())
(provision '(loopback)))))
(service wpa-supplicant-service-type)
(service connman-service-type
(disable-vpn? #t)))
;; Keep a reference to BARE-BONES-OS to make sure it can be
;; installed without downloading/building anything. Also keep the
;; things needed by 'profile-derivation' to minimize the amount of
;; download.
(service gc-root-service-type
(list bare-bones-os
;; Machines without Kernel Mode Setting (those with many old and
;; current AMD GPUs, SiS GPUs, ...) need uvesafb to show the GUI
;; installer. Some may also need a kernel parameter like nomodeset
;; or vga=793, but we leave that for the user to specify in GRUB.
(service uvesafb-service-type))))
(define %issue
;; Greeting.
\x1b[1;37mThis is an installation image of the GNU system. Welcome.\x1b[0m
\x1b[1;33mUse Alt-F2 for documentation.\x1b[0m
(define installation-os
;; The operating system used on installation images for USB sticks etc.
(host-name "gnu")
(timezone "Europe/Paris")
(locale "en_US.utf8")
(bootloader (bootloader-configuration
(bootloader grub-bootloader)
(target "/dev/sda")))
(label (string-append "GNU Guix installation "
(package-version guix)))
;; Note: the disk image build code overrides this root file system with
;; the appropriate one.
(cons* (file-system
(mount-point "/")
(device (file-system-label "Guix_image"))
(type "ext4"))
;; Make /tmp a tmpfs instead of keeping the overlayfs. This
;; originally was used for unionfs because FUSE creates
;; '.fuse_hiddenXYZ' files for each open file, and this confuses
;; Guix's test suite, for instance (see
;; <>). We keep this for overlayfs to be
;; on the safe side.
(mount-point "/tmp")
(device "none")
(type "tmpfs")
(check? #f))
;; XXX: This should be %BASE-FILE-SYSTEMS but we don't need
;; elogind's cgroup file systems.
(list %pseudo-terminal-file-system
(users (list (user-account
(name "guest")
(group "users")
(supplementary-groups '("wheel")) ; allow use of sudo
(password "")
(comment "Guest of GNU"))))
(issue %issue)
(services %installation-services)
;; We don't need setuid programs, except for 'passwd', which can be handy
;; if one is to allow remote SSH login to the machine being installed.
(setuid-programs (list (file-append shadow "/bin/passwd")))
;; Explicitly allow for empty passwords.
(base-pam-services #:allow-empty-passwords? #t))
(packages (cons* glibc ;for 'tzselect' & co.
parted gptfdisk ddrescue
font-dejavu font-gnu-unifont
grub ;mostly so xrefs to its manual work
dosfstools ;mkfs.fat, for the UEFI boot partition
openssh ;we already have sshd, having ssh/scp can help
wireless-tools iw wpa-supplicant-minimal iproute
;; XXX: We used to have GNU fdisk here, but as of version
;; 2.0.0a, that pulls Guile 1.8, which takes unreasonable
;; space; furthermore util-linux's fdisk is already
;; available here, so we keep that.
nvi ;:wq!
nss-certs ; To access HTTPS, use git, etc.
(define* (os-with-u-boot os board #:key (bootloader-target "/dev/mmcblk0")
(triplet "arm-linux-gnueabihf"))
"Given OS, amend it with the u-boot bootloader for BOARD,
installed to BOOTLOADER-TARGET (a drive), compiled for TRIPLET.
If you want a serial console, make sure to specify one in your
operating-system's kernel-arguments (\"console=ttyS0\" or similar)."
(operating-system (inherit os)
(bootloader (bootloader-configuration
(bootloader (bootloader (inherit u-boot-bootloader)
(package (make-u-boot-package board triplet))))
(target bootloader-target)))))
(define* (embedded-installation-os bootloader bootloader-target tty
#:key (extra-modules '()))
"Return an installation os for embedded systems.
The initrd gets the extra modules EXTRA-MODULES.
A getty is provided on TTY.
The bootloader BOOTLOADER is installed to BOOTLOADER-TARGET."
(inherit installation-os)
(bootloader (bootloader-configuration
(bootloader bootloader)
(target bootloader-target)))
(kernel linux-libre)
(cons (string-append "console=" tty)
(operating-system-user-kernel-arguments installation-os)))
(initrd-modules (append extra-modules %base-initrd-modules))))
(define beaglebone-black-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-beaglebone-black-bootloader
;; This module is required to mount the sd card.
(define a20-olinuxino-lime-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-a20-olinuxino-lime-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card storage
(define a20-olinuxino-lime2-emmc-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-a20-olinuxino-lime2-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk1" ; eMMC storage
(define a20-olinuxino-micro-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-a20-olinuxino-micro-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card storage
(define bananapi-m2-ultra-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-bananapi-m2-ultra-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk1" ; eMMC storage
(define firefly-rk3399-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-firefly-rk3399-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card/eMMC (SD priority) storage
"ttyS2")) ; UART2 connected on the Pi2 bus
(define mx6cuboxi-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-mx6cuboxi-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card storage
(define novena-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-novena-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk1" ; SD card storage
(define nintendo-nes-classic-edition-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-nintendo-nes-classic-edition-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card (solder it yourself)
(define pine64-plus-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-pine64-plus-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card storage
(define pinebook-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-pinebook-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card storage
(define rock64-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-rock64-rk3328-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card/eMMC (SD priority) storage
"ttyS2")) ; UART2 connected on the Pi2 bus
(define rockpro64-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-rockpro64-rk3399-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card/eMMC (SD priority) storage
"ttyS2")) ; UART2 connected on the Pi2 bus
(define rk3399-puma-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-puma-rk3399-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card storage
(define wandboard-installation-os
(embedded-installation-os u-boot-wandboard-bootloader
"/dev/mmcblk0" ; SD card storage
;; Return the default os here so 'guix system' can consume it directly.
;;; install.scm ends here