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;;; GNU Guix --- Functional package management for GNU
;;; Copyright © 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 Ludovic Courtès <>
;;; Copyright © 2016 Alex Griffin <>
;;; Copyright © 2020 Jan (janneke) Nieuwenhuizen <>
;;; Copyright © 2020 Efraim Flashner <>
;;; This file is part of GNU Guix.
;;; GNU Guix is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
;;; under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at
;;; your option) any later version.
;;; GNU Guix is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
;;; WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;;; GNU General Public License for more details.
;;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;;; along with GNU Guix. If not, see <>.
(define-module (gnu system shadow)
#:use-module (guix records)
#:use-module (guix gexp)
#:use-module (guix store)
#:use-module (guix modules)
#:use-module (guix sets)
#:use-module (guix ui)
#:use-module (gnu system accounts)
#:use-module (gnu services)
#:use-module (gnu services shepherd)
#:use-module ((gnu system file-systems)
#:select (%tty-gid))
#:use-module ((gnu packages admin)
#:select (shadow))
#:use-module (gnu packages bash)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-1)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-26)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-34)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-35)
;; Re-export these bindings for backward compatibility.
#:re-export (user-account
#:export (default-skeletons
;;; Commentary:
;;; Utilities for configuring the Shadow tool suite ('login', 'passwd', etc.)
;;; Code:
;; Change the default shell used by new <user-account> records.
(default-shell (file-append bash "/bin/bash"))
(define %base-groups
;; Default set of groups.
(let-syntax ((system-group (syntax-rules ()
((_ args ...)
(user-group (system? #t) args ...)))))
(list (system-group (name "root") (id 0))
(system-group (name "wheel")) ; root-like users
(system-group (name "users")) ; normal users
(system-group (name "nogroup")) ; for daemons etc.
;; The following groups are conventionally used by things like udev to
;; control access to hardware devices.
(system-group (name "tty") (id %tty-gid))
(system-group (name "dialout"))
(system-group (name "kmem"))
(system-group (name "input")) ; input devices, from udev
(system-group (name "video"))
(system-group (name "audio"))
(system-group (name "netdev")) ; used in avahi-dbus.conf
(system-group (name "lp"))
(system-group (name "disk"))
(system-group (name "floppy"))
(system-group (name "cdrom"))
(system-group (name "tape"))
(system-group (name "kvm"))))) ; for /dev/kvm
(define %base-user-accounts
;; List of standard user accounts. Note that "root" is a special case, so
;; it's not listed here.
(list (user-account
(name "nobody")
(uid 65534)
(group "nogroup")
(shell (file-append shadow "/sbin/nologin"))
(home-directory "/nonexistent")
(create-home-directory? #f)
(system? #t))))
(define (default-skeletons)
"Return the default skeleton files for /etc/skel. These files are copied by
'useradd' in the home directory of newly created user accounts."
(let ((profile (plain-file "bash_profile" "\
# Honor per-interactive-shell startup file
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then . ~/.bashrc; fi\n"))
(bashrc (plain-file "bashrc" "\
# Bash initialization for interactive non-login shells and
# for remote shells (info \"(bash) Bash Startup Files\").
# Export 'SHELL' to child processes. Programs such as 'screen'
# honor it and otherwise use /bin/sh.
export SHELL
if [[ $- != *i* ]]
# We are being invoked from a non-interactive shell. If this
# is an SSH session (as in \"ssh host command\"), source
# /etc/profile so we get PATH and other essential variables.
[[ -n \"$SSH_CLIENT\" ]] && source /etc/profile
# Don't do anything else.
# Source the system-wide file.
source /etc/bashrc
# Adjust the prompt depending on whether we're in 'guix environment'.
if [ -n \"$GUIX_ENVIRONMENT\" ]
PS1='\\u@\\h \\w [env]\\$ '
PS1='\\u@\\h \\w\\$ '
alias ls='ls -p --color=auto'
alias ll='ls -l'
alias grep='grep --color=auto'\n"))
(zprofile (plain-file "zprofile" "\
# Honor system-wide environment variables
source /etc/profile\n"))
(xdefaults (plain-file "Xdefaults" "\
XTerm*utf8: always
XTerm*metaSendsEscape: true\n"))
(gdbinit (plain-file "gdbinit" "\
# Tell GDB where to look for separate debugging files.
set debug-file-directory ~/.guix-profile/lib/debug
# Authorize extensions found in the store, such as the
# pretty-printers of libstdc++.
set auto-load safe-path /gnu/store/*/lib\n")))
`((".bash_profile" ,profile)
(".bashrc" ,bashrc)
;; Zsh sources ~/.zprofile before ~/.zshrc, and it sources ~/.zlogin
;; after ~/.zshrc. To avoid interfering with any customizations a user
;; may have made in their ~/.zshrc, put this in .zprofile, not .zlogin.
(".zprofile" ,zprofile)
(".nanorc" ,(plain-file "nanorc" "\
# Include all the syntax highlighting modules.
include /run/current-system/profile/share/nano/*.nanorc\n"))
(".Xdefaults" ,xdefaults)
(".guile" ,(plain-file "dot-guile"
"(cond ((false-if-exception (resolve-interface '(ice-9 readline)))
(lambda (module)
;; Enable completion and input history at the REPL.
((module-ref module 'activate-readline))))
(display \"Consider installing the 'guile-readline' package for
convenient interactive line editing and input history.\\n\\n\")))
(unless (getenv \"INSIDE_EMACS\")
(cond ((false-if-exception (resolve-interface '(ice-9 colorized)))
(lambda (module)
;; Enable completion and input history at the REPL.
((module-ref module 'activate-colorized))))
(display \"Consider installing the 'guile-colorized' package
for a colorful Guile experience.\\n\\n\"))))\n"))
(".gdbinit" ,gdbinit))))
(define (skeleton-directory skeletons)
"Return a directory containing SKELETONS, a list of name/derivation tuples."
(computed-file "skel"
(with-imported-modules '((guix build utils))
(use-modules (ice-9 match)
(guix build utils))
(mkdir #$output)
(chdir #$output)
;; Note: copy the skeletons instead of symlinking
;; them like 'file-union' does, because 'useradd'
;; would just copy the symlinks as is.
(for-each (match-lambda
((target source)
(copy-recursively source target)))
;; Make nanorc respect XDG_CONFIG_HOME.
(when (file-exists? ".nanorc")
(mkdir-p ".config/nano")
(rename-file ".nanorc" ".config/nano/nanorc"))
(define (assert-valid-users/groups users groups)
"Raise an error if USERS refer to groups not listed in GROUPS."
(let ((groups (list->set (map user-group-name groups))))
(define (validate-supplementary-group user group)
(unless (set-contains? groups group)
(raise (condition
(format #f (G_ "supplementary group '~a' \
of user '~a' is undeclared")
(user-account-name user))))))))
(for-each (lambda (user)
(unless (set-contains? groups (user-account-group user))
(raise (condition
(format #f (G_ "primary group '~a' \
of user '~a' is undeclared")
(user-account-group user)
(user-account-name user)))))))
(for-each (cut validate-supplementary-group user <>)
(user-account-supplementary-groups user)))
;;; Service.
(define (user-group->gexp group)
"Turn GROUP, a <user-group> object, into a list-valued gexp suitable for
#~(list #$(user-group-name group)
#$(user-group-password group)
#$(user-group-id group)
#$(user-group-system? group)))
(define (user-account->gexp account)
"Turn ACCOUNT, a <user-account> object, into a list-valued gexp suitable for
#~`(#$(user-account-name account)
#$(user-account-uid account)
#$(user-account-group account)
#$(user-account-supplementary-groups account)
#$(user-account-comment account)
#$(user-account-home-directory account)
#$(user-account-create-home-directory? account)
,#$(user-account-shell account) ; this one is a gexp
#$(user-account-password account)
#$(user-account-system? account)))
(define (account-activation accounts+groups)
"Return a gexp that activates ACCOUNTS+GROUPS, a list of <user-account> and
<user-group> objects. Raise an error if a user account refers to a undefined
(define accounts
(filter user-account? accounts+groups))
(define user-specs
(map user-account->gexp accounts))
(define groups
(filter user-group? accounts+groups))
(define group-specs
(map user-group->gexp groups))
(assert-valid-users/groups accounts groups)
;; Add users and user groups.
(with-imported-modules (source-module-closure '((gnu system accounts)))
(use-modules (gnu system accounts))
(activate-users+groups (map sexp->user-account (list #$@user-specs))
(map sexp->user-group (list #$@group-specs))))))
(define (account-shepherd-service accounts+groups)
"Return a Shepherd service that creates the home directories for the user
accounts among ACCOUNTS+GROUPS."
(define accounts
(filter user-account? accounts+groups))
;; Create home directories only once 'file-systems' is up. This makes sure
;; they are created in the right place if /home lives on a separate
;; partition.
;; XXX: We arrange for this service to stop right after it's done its job so
;; that 'guix system reconfigure' knows that it can reload it fearlessly
;; (and thus create new home directories).
(list (shepherd-service
(requirement '(file-systems))
(provision '(user-homes))
(one-shot? #t)
(modules '((gnu build activation)
(gnu system accounts)))
(start (with-imported-modules (source-module-closure
'((gnu build activation)
(gnu system accounts)))
#~(lambda ()
(map sexp->user-account
(list #$@(map user-account->gexp accounts))))
#t))) ;success
(documentation "Create user home directories."))))
(define (shells-file shells)
"Return a file-like object that builds a shell list for use as /etc/shells
based on SHELLS. /etc/shells is used by xterm, polkit, and other programs."
(computed-file "shells"
(use-modules (srfi srfi-1))
(define shells
(delete-duplicates (list #$@shells)))
(call-with-output-file #$output
(lambda (port)
(display "\
/run/current-system/profile/bin/bash\n" port)
(for-each (lambda (shell)
(display shell port)
(newline port))
(define (etc-files arguments)
"Filter out among ARGUMENTS things corresponding to skeletons, and return
the /etc/skel directory for those."
(let ((skels (filter pair? arguments))
(users (filter user-account? arguments)))
`(("skel" ,(skeleton-directory skels))
("shells" ,(shells-file (map user-account-shell users))))))
(define account-service-type
(service-type (name 'account)
;; Concatenate <user-account>, <user-group>, and skeleton
;; lists.
(compose concatenate)
(extend append)
(list (service-extension activation-service-type
(service-extension shepherd-root-service-type
;; Have 'user-processes' depend on 'user-homes' so that
;; daemons start after their home directory has been
;; created.
(service-extension user-processes-service-type
(const '(user-homes)))
(service-extension etc-service-type
"Ensure the specified user accounts and groups exist, as well
as each account home directory.")))
(define (account-service accounts+groups skeletons)
"Return a <service> that takes care of user accounts and user groups, with
ACCOUNTS+GROUPS as its initial list of accounts and groups."
(service account-service-type
(append skeletons accounts+groups)))
;;; shadow.scm ends here