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;;; GNU Guix --- Functional package management for GNU
;;; Copyright © 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 Ludovic Courtès <>
;;; Copyright © 2017 Mathieu Othacehe <>
;;; Copyright © 2019 Guillaume Le Vaillant <>
;;; This file is part of GNU Guix.
;;; GNU Guix is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
;;; under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at
;;; your option) any later version.
;;; GNU Guix is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
;;; WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;;; GNU General Public License for more details.
;;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;;; along with GNU Guix. If not, see <>.
(define-module (gnu build linux-boot)
#:use-module (rnrs io ports)
#:use-module (system repl error-handling)
#:autoload (system repl repl) (start-repl)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-1)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-9)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-26)
#:use-module (ice-9 match)
#:use-module (ice-9 rdelim)
#:use-module (ice-9 regex)
#:use-module (ice-9 ftw)
#:use-module (guix build utils)
#:use-module ((guix build syscalls)
#:hide (file-system-type))
#:use-module (gnu build linux-modules)
#:use-module (gnu build file-systems)
#:use-module (gnu system file-systems)
#:export (mount-essential-file-systems
;;; Commentary:
;;; Utility procedures useful in a Linux initial RAM disk (initrd). Note that
;;; many of these use procedures not yet available in vanilla Guile (`mount',
;;; `load-linux-module', etc.); these are provided by a Guile patch used in
;;; the GNU distribution.
;;; Code:
(define* (mount-essential-file-systems #:key (root "/"))
"Mount /dev, /proc, and /sys under ROOT."
(define (scope dir)
(string-append root
(if (string-suffix? "/" root)
(unless (file-exists? (scope "proc"))
(mkdir (scope "proc")))
(mount "none" (scope "proc") "proc")
(unless (file-exists? (scope "dev"))
(mkdir (scope "dev")))
(mount "none" (scope "dev") "devtmpfs")
(unless (file-exists? (scope "sys"))
(mkdir (scope "sys")))
(mount "none" (scope "sys") "sysfs"))
(define (move-essential-file-systems root)
"Move currently mounted essential file systems to ROOT."
(for-each (lambda (dir)
(let ((target (string-append root dir)))
(unless (file-exists? target)
(mkdir target))
(mount dir target "" MS_MOVE)))
'("/dev" "/proc" "/sys")))
(define (linux-command-line)
"Return the Linux kernel command line as a list of strings."
(call-with-input-file "/proc/cmdline"
(define (find-long-option option arguments)
"Find OPTION among ARGUMENTS, where OPTION is something like \"--load\".
Return the value associated with OPTION, or #f on failure."
(let ((opt (string-append option "=")))
(and=> (find (cut string-prefix? opt <>)
(lambda (arg)
(substring arg (+ 1 (string-index arg #\=)))))))
(define (find-long-options option arguments)
"Find OPTIONs among ARGUMENTS, where OPTION is something like \"console\".
Return the values associated with OPTIONs as a list, or the empty list if
OPTION doesn't appear in ARGUMENTS."
(let ((opt (string-append option "=")))
(filter-map (lambda (arg)
(and (string-prefix? opt arg)
(substring arg (+ 1 (string-index arg #\=)))))
(define* (make-disk-device-nodes base major #:optional (minor 0))
"Make the block device nodes around BASE (something like \"/root/dev/sda\")
with the given MAJOR number, starting with MINOR."
(mknod base 'block-special #o644 (device-number major minor))
(let loop ((i 1))
(when (< i 16)
(mknod (string-append base (number->string i))
'block-special #o644 (device-number major (+ minor i)))
(loop (+ i 1)))))
;; Representation of a /dev node.
(define-record-type <device-node>
(device-node name type major minor module)
(name device-node-name)
(type device-node-type)
(major device-node-major)
(minor device-node-minor)
(module device-node-module))
(define (read-static-device-nodes port)
"Read from PORT a list of <device-node> written in the format used by
/lib/modules/*/*.devname files."
(let loop ((line (read-line port)))
(if (eof-object? line)
(match (string-split line #\space)
(((? (cut string-prefix? "#" <>)) _ ...)
(loop (read-line port)))
((module-name device-name device-spec)
(let* ((device-parts
(string-match "([bc])([0-9][0-9]*):([0-9][0-9]*)"
(type-string (match:substring device-parts 1))
(type (match type-string
("c" 'char-special)
("b" 'block-special)))
(major-string (match:substring device-parts 2))
(major (string->number major-string 10))
(minor-string (match:substring device-parts 3))
(minor (string->number minor-string 10)))
(cons (device-node device-name type major minor module-name)
(loop (read-line port)))))
(format (current-error-port)
"read-static-device-nodes: ignored devname line '~a'~%" line)
(loop (read-line port))))))))
(define* (mkdir-p* dir #:optional (mode #o755))
"This is a variant of 'mkdir-p' that works around
<> by passing MODE explicitly in each 'mkdir' call."
(define absolute?
(string-prefix? "/" dir))
(define not-slash
(char-set-complement (char-set #\/)))
(let loop ((components (string-tokenize dir not-slash))
(root (if absolute?
(match components
((head tail ...)
(let ((path (string-append root "/" head)))
(catch 'system-error
(lambda ()
(mkdir path mode)
(loop tail path))
(lambda args
(if (= EEXIST (system-error-errno args))
(loop tail path)
(apply throw args))))))
(() #t))))
(define (report-system-error name . args)
"Report a system error for the file NAME."
(let ((errno (system-error-errno args)))
(format (current-error-port) "could not create '~a': ~a~%" name
(strerror errno))))
;; Catch a system-error, log it and don't die from it.
(define-syntax-rule (catch-system-error name exp)
(catch 'system-error
(lambda ()
(lambda args
(apply report-system-error name args))))
;; Create a device node like the <device-node> passed here on the file system.
(define create-device-node
(($ <device-node> xname type major minor module)
(let ((name (string-append "/dev/" xname)))
(mkdir-p* (dirname name))
(catch-system-error name
(mknod name type #o600 (device-number major minor)))))))
(define* (make-static-device-nodes linux-release-module-directory)
"Create static device nodes required by the given Linux release.
This is required in order to solve a chicken-or-egg problem:
The Linux kernel has a feature to autoload modules when a device is first
And udev has a feature to set the permissions of static nodes correctly
when it is starting up and also to automatically create nodes when hardware
is hotplugged. That leaves universal device files which are not linked to
one specific hardware device. These we have to create."
(let ((devname-name (string-append linux-release-module-directory "/"
(for-each create-device-node
(call-with-input-file devname-name
(define* (make-essential-device-nodes #:optional (root "/"))
"Make essential device nodes under ROOT/dev."
;; The hand-made devtmpfs/udev!
(define (scope dir)
(string-append root
(if (string-suffix? "/" root)
(unless (file-exists? (scope "dev"))
(mkdir (scope "dev")))
;; Make the device nodes for SCSI disks.
(make-disk-device-nodes (scope "dev/sda") 8)
(make-disk-device-nodes (scope "dev/sdb") 8 16)
(make-disk-device-nodes (scope "dev/sdc") 8 32)
(make-disk-device-nodes (scope "dev/sdd") 8 48)
;; SCSI CD-ROM devices (aka. "/dev/sr0" etc.).
(mknod (scope "dev/scd0") 'block-special #o644 (device-number 11 0))
(mknod (scope "dev/scd1") 'block-special #o644 (device-number 11 1))
;; The virtio (para-virtualized) block devices, as supported by QEMU/KVM.
(make-disk-device-nodes (scope "dev/vda") 252)
;; Memory (used by Xorg's VESA driver.)
(mknod (scope "dev/mem") 'char-special #o640 (device-number 1 1))
(mknod (scope "dev/kmem") 'char-special #o640 (device-number 1 2))
;; Inputs (used by Xorg.)
(unless (file-exists? (scope "dev/input"))
(mkdir (scope "dev/input")))
(mknod (scope "dev/input/mice") 'char-special #o640 (device-number 13 63))
(mknod (scope "dev/input/mouse0") 'char-special #o640 (device-number 13 32))
(mknod (scope "dev/input/event0") 'char-special #o640 (device-number 13 64))
;; System console. This node is magically created by the kernel on the
;; initrd's root, so don't try to create it in that case.
(unless (string=? root "/")
(mknod (scope "dev/console") 'char-special #o600
(device-number 5 1)))
;; TTYs.
(mknod (scope "dev/tty") 'char-special #o600
(device-number 5 0))
(chmod (scope "dev/tty") #o666)
(let loop ((n 0))
(and (< n 50)
(let ((name (format #f "dev/tty~a" n)))
(mknod (scope name) 'char-special #o600
(device-number 4 n))
(loop (+ 1 n)))))
;; Serial line.
(mknod (scope "dev/ttyS0") 'char-special #o660
(device-number 4 64))
;; Pseudo ttys.
(mknod (scope "dev/ptmx") 'char-special #o666
(device-number 5 2))
(chmod (scope "dev/ptmx") #o666)
;; Create /dev/pts; it will be mounted later, at boot time.
(unless (file-exists? (scope "dev/pts"))
(mkdir (scope "dev/pts")))
;; Rendez-vous point for syslogd.
(mknod (scope "dev/log") 'socket #o666 0)
(mknod (scope "dev/kmsg") 'char-special #o600 (device-number 1 11))
;; Other useful nodes, notably relied on by guix-daemon.
(for-each (match-lambda
((file major minor)
(mknod (scope file) 'char-special #o666
(device-number major minor))
(chmod (scope file) #o666)))
'(("dev/null" 1 3)
("dev/zero" 1 5)
("dev/full" 1 7)
("dev/random" 1 8)
("dev/urandom" 1 9)))
(symlink "/proc/self/fd" (scope "dev/fd"))
(symlink "/proc/self/fd/0" (scope "dev/stdin"))
(symlink "/proc/self/fd/1" (scope "dev/stdout"))
(symlink "/proc/self/fd/2" (scope "dev/stderr"))
;; Loopback devices.
(let loop ((i 0))
(when (< i 8)
(mknod (scope (string-append "dev/loop" (number->string i)))
'block-special #o660
(device-number 7 i))
(loop (+ 1 i))))
;; File systems in user space (FUSE).
(mknod (scope "dev/fuse") 'char-special #o666 (device-number 10 229)))
(define %host-qemu-ipv4-address
(inet-pton AF_INET ""))
(define* (configure-qemu-networking #:optional (interface "eth0"))
"Setup the INTERFACE network interface and /etc/resolv.conf according to
QEMU's default networking settings (see net/slirp.c in QEMU for default
networking values.) Return #t if INTERFACE is up, #f otherwise."
(display "configuring QEMU networking...\n")
(let* ((sock (socket AF_INET SOCK_STREAM 0))
(address (make-socket-address AF_INET %host-qemu-ipv4-address 0))
(flags (network-interface-flags sock interface)))
(set-network-interface-address sock interface address)
(set-network-interface-flags sock interface (logior flags IFF_UP))
;; Hello! We used to create /etc/resolv.conf here, with "nameserver
;;\n". However, with Linux-libre 3.16, we're getting ENOSPC.
;; And since it's actually unnecessary, it's gone.
(logand (network-interface-flags sock interface) IFF_UP)))
(define (device-number major minor)
"Return the device number for the device with MAJOR and MINOR, for use as
the last argument of `mknod'."
(+ (* major 256) minor))
(define (pidof program)
"Return the PID of the first presumed instance of PROGRAM."
(let ((program (basename program)))
(find (lambda (pid)
(let ((exe (format #f "/proc/~a/exe" pid)))
(and=> (false-if-exception (readlink exe))
(compose (cut string=? program <>) basename))))
(filter-map string->number (scandir "/proc")))))
(define* (mount-root-file-system root type
#:key volatile-root? (flags 0) options)
"Mount the root file system of type TYPE at device ROOT. If VOLATILE-ROOT? is
true, mount ROOT read-only and make it an overlay with a writable tmpfs using
the kernel built-in overlayfs. FLAGS and OPTIONS indicates the options to use
to mount ROOT, and behave the same as for the `mount' procedure."
(if volatile-root?
(mkdir-p "/real-root")
(mount root "/real-root" type (logior MS_RDONLY flags) options)
(mkdir-p "/rw-root")
(mount "none" "/rw-root" "tmpfs")
;; Create the upperdir and the workdir of the overlayfs
(mkdir-p "/rw-root/upper")
(mkdir-p "/rw-root/work")
;; We want read-write /dev nodes.
(mkdir-p "/rw-root/upper/dev")
(mount "none" "/rw-root/upper/dev" "devtmpfs")
;; Make /root an overlay of the tmpfs and the actual root.
(mount "none" "/root" "overlay" 0
(check-file-system root type)
(mount root "/root" type flags options)))
;; Make sure /root/etc/mtab is a symlink to /proc/self/mounts.
(delete-file "/root/etc/mtab"))
(mkdir-p "/root/etc")
(symlink "/proc/self/mounts" "/root/etc/mtab"))
(define (switch-root root)
"Switch to ROOT as the root file system, in a way similar to what
util-linux' switch_root(8) does."
(move-essential-file-systems root)
(chdir root)
;; Since we're about to 'rm -rf /', try to make sure we're on an initrd.
;; TODO: Use 'statfs' to check the fs type, like klibc does.
(when (or (not (file-exists? "/init")) (directory-exists? "/home"))
(format (current-error-port)
"The root file system is probably not an initrd; \
bailing out.~%root contents: ~s~%" (scandir "/"))
(force-output (current-error-port))
(exit 1))
;; Delete files from the old root, without crossing mount points (assuming
;; there are no mount points in sub-directories.) That means we're leaving
;; the empty ROOT directory behind us, but that's OK.
(let ((root-device (stat:dev (stat "/"))))
(for-each (lambda (file)
(unless (member file '("." ".."))
(let* ((file (string-append "/" file))
(device (stat:dev (lstat file))))
(when (= device root-device)
(delete-file-recursively file)))))
(scandir "/")))
;; Make ROOT the new root.
(mount root "/" "" MS_MOVE)
(chroot ".")
(chdir "/")
(when (file-exists? "/dev/console")
;; Close the standard file descriptors since they refer to the old
;; /dev/console, and reopen them.
(let ((console (open-file "/dev/console" "r+b0")))
(for-each close-fdes '(0 1 2))
(dup2 (fileno console) 0)
(dup2 (fileno console) 1)
(dup2 (fileno console) 2)
(close-port console))))
(define* (boot-system #:key
(linux-modules '())
(mounts '())
(on-error 'debug))
"This procedure is meant to be called from an initrd. Boot a system by
first loading LINUX-MODULES (a list of module names) from
LINUX-MODULE-DIRECTORY, then installing KEYMAP-FILE with 'loadkeys' (if
KEYMAP-FILE is true), then setting up QEMU guest networking if
QEMU-GUEST-NETWORKING? is true, calling PRE-MOUNT, mounting the file systems
specified in MOUNTS, and finally booting into the new root if any. The initrd
supports kernel command-line options '--load', '--root', and '--repl'.
Mount the root file system, specified by the '--root' command-line argument,
if any.
MOUNTS must be a list of <file-system> objects.
When VOLATILE-ROOT? is true, the root file system is writable but any changes
to it are lost.
ON-ERROR is passed to 'call-with-error-handling'; it determines what happens
upon error."
(define (root-mount-point? fs)
(string=? (file-system-mount-point fs) "/"))
(define (device-string->file-system-device device-string)
;; The "--root=SPEC" kernel command-line option always provides a
;; string, but the string can represent a device, a UUID, or a
;; label. So check for all three.
(cond ((string-prefix? "/" device-string) device-string)
((uuid device-string) => identity)
(else (file-system-label device-string))))
(display "Welcome, this is GNU's early boot Guile.\n")
(display "Use '--repl' for an initrd REPL.\n\n")
(lambda ()
(let* ((args (linux-command-line))
(to-load (find-long-option "--load" args))
(root-fs (find root-mount-point? mounts))
(root-fs-type (or (and=> root-fs file-system-type)
(root-fs-device (and=> root-fs file-system-device))
(root-fs-flags (mount-flags->bit-mask
(or (and=> root-fs file-system-flags)
(root-options (if root-fs
(file-system-options root-fs)
;; --root takes precedence over the 'device' field of the root
;; <file-system> record.
(root-device (or (and=> (find-long-option "--root" args)
(when (member "--repl" args)
(display "loading kernel modules...\n")
(load-linux-modules-from-directory linux-modules
(when keymap-file
(let ((status (system* "loadkeys" keymap-file)))
(unless (zero? status)
;; Emit a warning rather than abort when we cannot load
(format (current-error-port)
"warning: 'loadkeys' exited with status ~a~%"
(when qemu-guest-networking?
(unless (configure-qemu-networking)
(display "network interface is DOWN\n")))
;; Prepare the real root file system under /root.
(unless (file-exists? "/root")
(mkdir "/root"))
(when (procedure? pre-mount)
;; Do whatever actions are needed before mounting the root file
;; system--e.g., installing device mappings. Error out when the
;; return value is false.
(unless (pre-mount)
(error "pre-mount actions failed")))
(setenv "EXT2FS_NO_MTAB_OK" "1")
(if root-device
(mount-root-file-system (canonicalize-device-spec root-device)
#:volatile-root? volatile-root?
#:flags root-fs-flags
#:options root-options)
(mount "none" "/root" "tmpfs"))
;; Mount the specified file systems.
(for-each mount-file-system
(remove root-mount-point? mounts))
(setenv "EXT2FS_NO_MTAB_OK" #f)
(if to-load
(switch-root "/root")
(format #t "loading '~a'...\n" to-load)
(primitive-load to-load)
(format (current-error-port)
"boot program '~a' terminated, rebooting~%"
(sleep 2)
(display "no boot file passed via '--load'\n")
(display "entering a warm and cozy REPL\n")
#:on-error on-error))
;;; linux-boot.scm ends here