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;;; GNU Guix --- Functional package management for GNU
;;; Copyright © 2015 David Thompson <davet@gnu.org>
;;; This file is part of GNU Guix.
;;; GNU Guix is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
;;; under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at
;;; your option) any later version.
;;; GNU Guix is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
;;; WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;;; GNU General Public License for more details.
;;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;;; along with GNU Guix. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
(define-module (gnu build linux-container)
#:use-module (ice-9 format)
#:use-module (ice-9 match)
#:use-module (ice-9 rdelim)
#:use-module (srfi srfi-98)
#:use-module (guix utils)
#:use-module (guix build utils)
#:use-module (guix build syscalls)
#:use-module (gnu system file-systems) ;<file-system>
#:use-module ((gnu build file-systems) #:select (mount-file-system))
#:export (user-namespace-supported?
(define (user-namespace-supported?)
"Return #t if user namespaces are supported on this system."
(file-exists? "/proc/self/ns/user"))
(define (unprivileged-user-namespace-supported?)
"Return #t if user namespaces can be created by unprivileged users."
(let ((userns-file "/proc/sys/kernel/unprivileged_userns_clone"))
(if (file-exists? userns-file)
(eqv? #\1 (call-with-input-file userns-file read-char))
(define (setgroups-supported?)
"Return #t if the setgroups proc file, introduced in Linux-libre 3.19,
(file-exists? "/proc/self/setgroups"))
(define %namespaces
'(mnt pid ipc uts user net))
(define (call-with-clean-exit thunk)
"Apply THUNK, but exit with a status code of 1 if it fails."
(const #t)
(lambda ()
(primitive-exit 0))
(lambda ()
(primitive-exit 1))))
(define (purify-environment)
"Unset all environment variables."
(for-each unsetenv
(match (get-environment-variables)
(((names . _) ...) names))))
;; The container setup procedure closely resembles that of the Docker
;; specification:
;; https://raw.githubusercontent.com/docker/libcontainer/master/SPEC.md
(define* (mount-file-systems root mounts #:key mount-/sys? mount-/proc?)
"Mount the essential file systems and the those in MOUNTS, a list of
<file-system> objects, relative to ROOT; then make ROOT the new root directory
for the process."
(define (scope dir)
(string-append root dir))
(define (touch file-name)
(call-with-output-file file-name (const #t)))
(define (bind-mount src dest)
(mount src dest "none" MS_BIND))
;; Like mount, but creates the mount point if it doesn't exist.
(define* (mount* source target type #:optional (flags 0) options
#:key (update-mtab? #f))
(mkdir-p target)
(mount source target type flags options #:update-mtab? update-mtab?))
;; The container's file system is completely ephemeral, sans directories
;; bind-mounted from the host.
(mount "none" root "tmpfs")
;; A proc mount requires a new pid namespace.
(when mount-/proc?
(mount* "none" (scope "/proc") "proc"
;; A sysfs mount requires the user to have the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability in
;; the current network namespace.
(when mount-/sys?
(mount* "none" (scope "/sys") "sysfs"
(mount* "none" (scope "/dev") "tmpfs"
;; Create essential device nodes via bind-mounting them from the
;; host, because a process within a user namespace cannot create
;; device nodes.
(for-each (lambda (device)
(when (file-exists? device)
;; Create the mount point file.
(touch (scope device))
(bind-mount device (scope device))))
;; Setup the container's /dev/console by bind mounting the pseudo-terminal
;; associated with standard input.
(let ((in (current-input-port))
(console (scope "/dev/console")))
(when (isatty? in)
(touch console)
(chmod console #o600)
(bind-mount (ttyname in) console)))
;; Setup standard input/output/error.
(symlink "/proc/self/fd" (scope "/dev/fd"))
(symlink "/proc/self/fd/0" (scope "/dev/stdin"))
(symlink "/proc/self/fd/1" (scope "/dev/stdout"))
(symlink "/proc/self/fd/2" (scope "/dev/stderr"))
;; Mount user-specified file systems.
(for-each (lambda (file-system)
(mount-file-system (file-system->spec file-system)
#:root root))
;; Jail the process inside the container's root file system.
(let ((put-old (string-append root "/real-root")))
(mkdir put-old)
(pivot-root root put-old)
(chdir "/")
(umount "real-root" MNT_DETACH)
(rmdir "real-root")))
(define (initialize-user-namespace pid host-uids)
"Configure the user namespace for PID. HOST-UIDS specifies the number of
host user identifiers to map into the user namespace."
(define proc-dir
(string-append "/proc/" (number->string pid)))
(define (scope file)
(string-append proc-dir file))
(let ((uid (getuid))
(gid (getgid)))
;; Only root can write to the gid map without first disabling the
;; setgroups syscall.
(unless (and (zero? uid) (zero? gid))
(call-with-output-file (scope "/setgroups")
(lambda (port)
(display "deny" port))))
;; Map the user/group that created the container to the root user
;; within the container.
(call-with-output-file (scope "/uid_map")
(lambda (port)
(format port "0 ~d ~d" uid host-uids)))
(call-with-output-file (scope "/gid_map")
(lambda (port)
(format port "0 ~d ~d" gid host-uids)))))
(define (namespaces->bit-mask namespaces)
"Return the number suitable for the 'flags' argument of 'clone' that
corresponds to the symbols in NAMESPACES."
;; Use the same flags as fork(3) in addition to the namespace flags.
(apply logior SIGCHLD
(map (match-lambda
(define (run-container root mounts namespaces host-uids thunk)
"Run THUNK in a new container process and return its PID. ROOT specifies
the root directory for the container. MOUNTS is a list of <file-system>
objects that specify file systems to mount inside the container. NAMESPACES
is a list of symbols that correspond to the possible Linux namespaces: mnt,
ipc, uts, user, and net. HOST-UIDS specifies the number of
host user identifiers to map into the user namespace."
;; The parent process must initialize the user namespace for the child
;; before it can boot. To negotiate this, a pipe is used such that the
;; child process blocks until the parent writes to it.
(match (socketpair PF_UNIX SOCK_STREAM 0)
((child . parent)
(let ((flags (namespaces->bit-mask namespaces)))
(match (clone flags)
(lambda ()
(close-port parent)
;; Wait for parent to set things up.
(match (read child)
(when (memq 'mnt namespaces)
(catch #t
(lambda ()
(mount-file-systems root mounts
#:mount-/proc? (memq 'pid namespaces)
#:mount-/sys? (memq 'net
(lambda args
;; Forward the exception to the parent process.
(write args child)
(primitive-exit 3))))
;; TODO: Manage capabilities.
(write 'ready child)
(close-port child)
(_ ;parent died or something
(primitive-exit 2))))))
(close-port child)
(when (memq 'user namespaces)
(initialize-user-namespace pid host-uids))
;; TODO: Initialize cgroups.
(write 'ready parent)
(newline parent)
;; Check whether the child process' setup phase succeeded.
(let ((message (read parent)))
(close-port parent)
(match message
('ready ;success
(((? symbol? key) args ...) ;exception
(apply throw key args))
(_ ;unexpected termination
(define* (call-with-container mounts thunk #:key (namespaces %namespaces)
(host-uids 1))
"Run THUNK in a new container process and return its exit status.
MOUNTS is a list of <file-system> objects that specify file systems to mount
inside the container. NAMESPACES is a list of symbols corresponding to
the identifiers for Linux namespaces: mnt, ipc, uts, pid, user, and net. By
default, all namespaces are used. HOST-UIDS is the number of host user
identifiers to map into the container's user namespace, if there is one. By
default, only a single uid/gid, that of the current user, is mapped into the
container. The host user that creates the container is the root user (uid/gid
0) within the container. Only root can map more than a single uid/gid.
Note that if THUNK needs to load any additional Guile modules, the relevant
module files must be present in one of the mappings in MOUNTS and the Guile
load path must be adjusted as needed."
(lambda (root)
(let ((pid (run-container root mounts namespaces host-uids thunk)))
;; Catch SIGINT and kill the container process.
(sigaction SIGINT
(lambda (signum)
(kill pid SIGKILL))))
(match (waitpid pid)
((_ . status) status))))))
(define (container-excursion pid thunk)
"Run THUNK as a child process within the namespaces of process PID and
return the exit status."
(define (namespace-file pid namespace)
(string-append "/proc/" (number->string pid) "/ns/" namespace))
(match (primitive-fork)
(lambda ()
(for-each (lambda (ns)
(let ((source (namespace-file (getpid) ns))
(target (namespace-file pid ns)))
;; Joining the namespace that the process already
;; belongs to would throw an error so avoid that.
;; XXX: This /proc interface leads to TOCTTOU.
(unless (string=? (readlink source) (readlink target))
(call-with-input-file source
(lambda (current-ns-port)
(call-with-input-file target
(lambda (new-ns-port)
(setns (fileno new-ns-port) 0))))))))
;; It's important that the user namespace is joined first,
;; so that the user will have the privileges to join the
;; other namespaces. Furthermore, it's important that the
;; mount namespace is joined last, otherwise the /proc mount
;; point would no longer be accessible.
'("user" "ipc" "uts" "net" "pid" "mnt"))
(chdir "/")
(match (waitpid pid)
((_ . status)
(status:exit-val status))))))