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\input texinfo
@c -*-texinfo-*-
@c %**start of header
@setfilename guix.info
@documentencoding UTF-8
@settitle GNU Guix Reference Manual
@c %**end of header
@include version.texi
@copying
Copyright @copyright{} 2012, 2013, 2014 Ludovic Courtès@*
Copyright @copyright{} 2013, 2014 Andreas Enge@*
Copyright @copyright{} 2013 Nikita Karetnikov
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A
copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free
Documentation License''.
@end copying
@dircategory Package management
@direntry
* guix: (guix). Guix, the functional package manager.
* guix package: (guix)Invoking guix package
Managing packages with Guix.
* guix build: (guix)Invoking guix build
Building packages with Guix.
@end direntry
@titlepage
@title GNU Guix Reference Manual
@subtitle Using the GNU Guix Functional Package Manager
@author Ludovic Courtès
@author Andreas Enge
@author Nikita Karetnikov
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Edition @value{EDITION} @*
@value{UPDATED} @*
@insertcopying
@end titlepage
@contents
@c *********************************************************************
@node Top
@top GNU Guix
This document describes GNU Guix version @value{VERSION}, a functional
package management tool written for the GNU system.
@menu
* Introduction:: What is Guix about?
* Installation:: Installing Guix.
* Package Management:: Package installation, upgrade, etc.
* Programming Interface:: Using Guix in Scheme.
* Utilities:: Package management commands.
* GNU Distribution:: Software for your friendly GNU system.
* Contributing:: Your help needed!
* Acknowledgments:: Thanks!
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license of this manual.
* Concept Index:: Concepts.
* Function Index:: Functions.
@end menu
@c *********************************************************************
@node Introduction
@chapter Introduction
GNU Guix@footnote{``Guix'' is pronounced like ``geeks'', or ``ɡiːks''
using the international phonetic alphabet (IPA).} is a functional
package management tool for the GNU system. Package management consists
of all activities that relate to building packages from sources,
honoring their build-time and run-time dependencies,
installing packages in user environments, upgrading installed packages
to new versions or rolling back to a previous set, removing unused
software packages, etc.
@cindex functional package management
The term @dfn{functional} refers to a specific package management
discipline. In Guix, the package build and installation process is seen
as a function, in the mathematical sense. That function takes inputs,
such as build scripts, a compiler, and libraries, and
returns an installed package. As a pure function, its result depends
solely on its inputs---for instance, it cannot refer to software or
scripts that were not explicitly passed as inputs. A build function
always produces the same result when passed a given set of inputs. It
cannot alter the system's environment in
any way; for instance, it cannot create, modify, or delete files outside
of its build and installation directories. This is achieved by running
build processes in isolated environments (or @dfn{containers}), where only their
explicit inputs are visible.
@cindex store
The result of package build functions is @dfn{cached} in the file
system, in a special directory called @dfn{the store} (@pxref{The
Store}). Each package is installed in a directory of its own, in the
store---by default under @file{/gnu/store}. The directory name contains
a hash of all the inputs used to build that package; thus, changing an
input yields a different directory name.
This approach is the foundation of Guix's salient features: support for
transactional package upgrade and rollback, per-user installation, and
garbage collection of packages (@pxref{Features}).
Guix has a command-line interface, which allows users to build, install,
upgrade, and remove packages, as well as a Scheme programming interface.
Last but not least, Guix is used to build a distribution of the GNU
system, with many GNU and non-GNU free software packages. @xref{GNU
Distribution}.
@c *********************************************************************
@node Installation
@chapter Installation
GNU Guix is available for download from its website at
@url{http://www.gnu.org/software/guix/}. This section describes the
software requirements of Guix, as well as how to install it and get
ready to use it.
The build procedure for Guix is the same as for other GNU software, and
is not covered here. Please see the files @file{README} and
@file{INSTALL} in the Guix source tree for additional details.
@menu
* Requirements:: Software needed to build and run Guix.
* Setting Up the Daemon:: Preparing the build daemon's environment.
* Invoking guix-daemon:: Running the build daemon.
@end menu
@node Requirements
@section Requirements
GNU Guix depends on the following packages:
@itemize
@item @url{http://gnu.org/software/guile/, GNU Guile}, version 2.0.5 or later;
@item @url{http://gnupg.org/, GNU libgcrypt}
@end itemize
Unless @code{--disable-daemon} was passed to @command{configure}, the
following packages are also needed:
@itemize
@item @url{http://sqlite.org, SQLite 3}
@item @url{http://www.bzip.org, libbz2}
@item @url{http://gcc.gnu.org, GCC's g++}
@end itemize
When a working installation of @url{http://nixos.org/nix/, the Nix package
manager} is available, you
can instead configure Guix with @code{--disable-daemon}. In that case,
Nix replaces the three dependencies above.
Guix is compatible with Nix, so it is possible to share the same store
between both. To do so, you must pass @command{configure} not only the
same @code{--with-store-dir} value, but also the same
@code{--localstatedir} value. The latter is essential because it
specifies where the database that stores metadata about the store is
located, among other things. The default values for Nix are
@code{--with-store-dir=/nix/store} and @code{--localstatedir=/nix/var}.
Note that @code{--disable-daemon} is not required if
your goal is to share the store with Nix.
@node Setting Up the Daemon
@section Setting Up the Daemon
@cindex daemon
Operations such as building a package or running the garbage collector
are all performed by a specialized process, the @dfn{build daemon}, on
behalf of clients. Only the daemon may access the store and its
associated database. Thus, any operation that manipulates the store
goes through the daemon. For instance, command-line tools such as
@command{guix package} and @command{guix build} communicate with the
daemon (@i{via} remote procedure calls) to instruct it what to do.
The following sections explain how to prepare the build daemon's
environment.
@menu
* Build Environment Setup:: Preparing the isolated build environment.
* Daemon Offload Setup:: Offloading builds to remote machines.
@end menu
@node Build Environment Setup
@subsection Build Environment Setup
In a standard multi-user setup, Guix and its daemon---the
@command{guix-daemon} program---are installed by the system
administrator; @file{/gnu/store} is owned by @code{root} and
@command{guix-daemon} runs as @code{root}. Unprivileged users may use
Guix tools to build packages or otherwise access the store, and the
daemon will do it on their behalf, ensuring that the store is kept in a
consistent state, and allowing built packages to be shared among users.
@cindex build users
When @command{guix-daemon} runs as @code{root}, you may not want package
build processes themselves to run as @code{root} too, for obvious
security reasons. To avoid that, a special pool of @dfn{build users}
should be created for use by build processes started by the daemon.
These build users need not have a shell and a home directory: they will
just be used when the daemon drops @code{root} privileges in build
processes. Having several such users allows the daemon to launch
distinct build processes under separate UIDs, which guarantees that they
do not interfere with each other---an essential feature since builds are
regarded as pure functions (@pxref{Introduction}).
On a GNU/Linux system, a build user pool may be created like this (using
Bash syntax and the @code{shadow} commands):
@c See http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/bug-guix/2013-01/msg00239.html
@c for why `-G' is needed.
@example
# groupadd guix-builder
# for i in `seq 1 10`;
do
useradd -g guix-builder -G guix-builder \
-d /var/empty -s `which nologin` \
-c "Guix build user $i" --system \
guix-builder$i;
done
@end example
@noindent
The @code{guix-daemon} program may then be run as @code{root} with:
@example
# guix-daemon --build-users-group=guix-builder
@end example
@cindex chroot
@noindent
This way, the daemon starts build processes in a chroot, under one of
the @code{guix-builder} users. On GNU/Linux, by default, the chroot
environment contains nothing but:
@c Keep this list in sync with libstore/build.cc! -----------------------
@itemize
@item
a minimal @code{/dev} directory, created mostly independently from the
host @code{/dev}@footnote{``Mostly'', because while the set of files
that appear in the chroot's @code{/dev} is fixed, most of these files
can only be created if the host has them.};
@item
the @code{/proc} directory; it only shows the container's processes
since a separate PID name space is used;
@item
@file{/etc/passwd} with an entry for the current user and an entry for
user @file{nobody};
@item
@file{/etc/group} with an entry for the user's group;
@item
@file{/etc/hosts} with an entry that maps @code{localhost} to
@code{127.0.0.1};
@item
a writable @file{/tmp} directory.
@end itemize
If you are installing Guix as an unprivileged user, it is still
possible to run @command{guix-daemon}. However, build processes will
not be isolated from one another, and not from the rest of the system.
Thus, build processes may interfere with each other, and may access
programs, libraries, and other files available on the system---making it
much harder to view them as @emph{pure} functions.
@node Daemon Offload Setup
@subsection Using the Offload Facility
@cindex offloading
@cindex build hook
When desired, the build daemon can @dfn{offload}
derivation builds to other machines
running Guix, using the @code{offload} @dfn{build hook}. When that
feature is enabled, a list of user-specified build machines is read from
@file{/etc/guix/machines.scm}; anytime a build is requested, for
instance via @code{guix build}, the daemon attempts to offload it to one
of the machines that satisfies the derivation's constraints, in
particular its system type---e.g., @file{x86_64-linux}. Missing
prerequisites for the build are copied over SSH to the target machine,
which then proceeds with the build; upon success the output(s) of the
build are copied back to the initial machine.
The @file{/etc/guix/machines.scm} file typically looks like this:
@example
(list (build-machine
(name "eightysix.example.org")
(system "x86_64-linux")
(user "bob")
(speed 2.)) ; incredibly fast!
(build-machine
(name "meeps.example.org")
(system "mips64el-linux")
(user "alice")
(private-key
(string-append (getenv "HOME")
"/.ssh/id-rsa-for-guix"))))
@end example
@noindent
In the example above we specify a list of two build machines, one for
the @code{x86_64} architecture and one for the @code{mips64el}
architecture.
In fact, this file is---not surprisingly!---a Scheme file that is
evaluated when the @code{offload} hook is started. Its return value
must be a list of @code{build-machine} objects. While this example
shows a fixed list of build machines, one could imagine, say, using
DNS-SD to return a list of potential build machines discovered in the
local network (@pxref{Introduction, Guile-Avahi,, guile-avahi, Using
Avahi in Guile Scheme Programs}).
The compulsory fields for a @code{build-machine} declaration are:
@table @code
@item name
The remote machine's host name.
@item system
The remote machine's system type.
@item user
The user account to use when connecting to the remote machine over SSH.
Note that the SSH key pair must @emph{not} be passphrase-protected, to
allow non-interactive logins.
@end table
@noindent
A number of optional fields may be specified:
@table @code
@item port
Port number of the machine's SSH server (default: 22).
@item private-key
The SSH private key file to use when connecting to the machine.
@item parallel-builds
The number of builds that may run in parallel on the machine (1 by
default.)
@item speed
A ``relative speed factor''. The offload scheduler will tend to prefer
machines with a higher speed factor.
@item features
A list of strings denoting specific features supported by the machine.
An example is @code{"kvm"} for machines that have the KVM Linux modules
and corresponding hardware support. Derivations can request features by
name, and they will be scheduled on matching build machines.
@end table
The @code{guix} command must be in the search path on the build
machines, since offloading works by invoking the @code{guix archive} and
@code{guix build} commands.
There's one last thing to do once @file{machines.scm} is in place. As
explained above, when offloading, files are transferred back and forth
between the machine stores. For this to work, you need to generate a
key pair to allow the daemon to export signed archives of files from the
store (@pxref{Invoking guix archive}):
@example
# guix archive --generate-key
@end example
@noindent
Thus, when receiving files, a machine's build daemon can make sure they
are genuine, have not been tampered with, and that they are signed by an
authorized key.
@node Invoking guix-daemon
@section Invoking @command{guix-daemon}
The @command{guix-daemon} program implements all the functionality to
access the store. This includes launching build processes, running the
garbage collector, querying the availability of a build result, etc. It
is normally run as @code{root} like this:
@example
# guix-daemon --build-users-group=guix-builder
@end example
@noindent
For details on how to set it up, @ref{Setting Up the Daemon}.
@cindex chroot
@cindex container, build environment
@cindex build environment
@cindex reproducible builds
By default, @command{guix-daemon} launches build processes under
different UIDs, taken from the build group specified with
@code{--build-users-group}. In addition, each build process is run in a
chroot environment that only contains the subset of the store that the
build process depends on, as specified by its derivation
(@pxref{Programming Interface, derivation}), plus a set of specific
system directories. By default, the latter contains @file{/dev} and
@file{/dev/pts}. Furthermore, on GNU/Linux, the build environment is a
@dfn{container}: in addition to having its own file system tree, it has
a separate mount name space, its own PID name space, network name space,
etc. This helps achieve reproducible builds (@pxref{Features}).
The following command-line options are supported:
@table @code
@item --build-users-group=@var{group}
Take users from @var{group} to run build processes (@pxref{Setting Up
the Daemon, build users}).
@item --no-substitutes
@cindex substitutes
Do not use substitutes for build products. That is, always build things
locally instead of allowing downloads of pre-built binaries
(@pxref{Substitutes}).
By default substitutes are used, unless the client---such as the
@command{guix package} command---is explicitly invoked with
@code{--no-substitutes}.
When the daemon runs with @code{--no-substitutes}, clients can still
explicitly enable substitution @i{via} the @code{set-build-options}
remote procedure call (@pxref{The Store}).
@cindex build hook
@item --no-build-hook
Do not use the @dfn{build hook}.
The build hook is a helper program that the daemon can start and to
which it submits build requests. This mechanism is used to offload
builds to other machines (@pxref{Daemon Offload Setup}).
@item --cache-failures
Cache build failures. By default, only successful builds are cached.
@item --cores=@var{n}
@itemx -c @var{n}
Use @var{n} CPU cores to build each derivation; @code{0} means as many
as available.
The default value is @code{1}, but it may be overridden by clients, such
as the @code{--cores} option of @command{guix build} (@pxref{Invoking
guix build}).
The effect is to define the @code{NIX_BUILD_CORES} environment variable
in the build process, which can then use it to exploit internal
parallelism---for instance, by running @code{make -j$NIX_BUILD_CORES}.
@item --max-jobs=@var{n}
@itemx -M @var{n}
Allow at most @var{n} build jobs in parallel. The default value is
@code{1}.
@item --debug
Produce debugging output.
This is useful to debug daemon start-up issues, but then it may be
overridden by clients, for example the @code{--verbosity} option of
@command{guix build} (@pxref{Invoking guix build}).
@item --chroot-directory=@var{dir}
Add @var{dir} to the build chroot.
Doing this may change the result of build processes---for instance if
they use optional dependencies found in @var{dir} when it is available,
and not otherwise. For that reason, it is not recommended to do so.
Instead, make sure that each derivation declares all the inputs that it
needs.
@item --disable-chroot
Disable chroot builds.
Using this option is not recommended since, again, it would allow build
processes to gain access to undeclared dependencies.
@item --disable-log-compression
Disable compression of the build logs.
Unless @code{--lose-logs} is used, all the build logs are kept in the
@var{localstatedir}. To save space, the daemon automatically compresses
them with bzip2 by default. This option disables that.
@item --disable-store-optimization
Disable automatic file ``deduplication'' in the store.
By default, files added to the store are automatically ``deduplicated'':
if a newly added file is identical as another one found in the store,
the daemon makes the new file a hard link to the other file. This
slightly increases the input/output load at the end of a build process.
This option disables this.
@item --gc-keep-outputs[=yes|no]
Tell whether the garbage collector (GC) must keep outputs of live
derivations.
When set to ``yes'', the GC will keep the outputs of any live derivation
available in the store---the @code{.drv} files. The default is ``no'',
meaning that derivation outputs are kept only if they are GC roots.
@item --gc-keep-derivations[=yes|no]
Tell whether the garbage collector (GC) must keep derivations
corresponding to live outputs.
When set to ``yes'', as is the case by default, the GC keeps
derivations---i.e., @code{.drv} files---as long as at least one of their
outputs is live. This allows users to keep track of the origins of
items in their store. Setting it to ``no'' saves a bit of disk space.
Note that when both @code{--gc-keep-derivations} and
@code{--gc-keep-outputs} are used, the effect is to keep all the build
prerequisites (the sources, compiler, libraries, and other build-time
tools) of live objects in the store, regardless of whether these
prerequisites are live. This is convenient for developers since it
saves rebuilds or downloads.
@item --impersonate-linux-2.6
On Linux-based systems, impersonate Linux 2.6. This means that the
kernel's @code{uname} system call will report 2.6 as the release number.
This might be helpful to build programs that (usually wrongfully) depend
on the kernel version number.
@item --lose-logs
Do not keep build logs. By default they are kept under
@code{@var{localstatedir}/nix/log}.
@item --system=@var{system}
Assume @var{system} as the current system type. By default it is the
architecture/kernel pair found at configure time, such as
@code{x86_64-linux}.
@item --listen=@var{socket}
Listen for connections on @var{socket}, the file name of a Unix-domain
socket. The default socket is
@file{@var{localstatedir}/daemon-socket/socket}. This option is only
useful in exceptional circumstances, such as if you need to run several
daemons on the same machine.
@end table
@c *********************************************************************
@node Package Management
@chapter Package Management
The purpose of GNU Guix is to allow users to easily install, upgrade, and
remove software packages, without having to know about their build
procedure or dependencies. Guix also goes beyond this obvious set of
features.
This chapter describes the main features of Guix, as well as the package
management tools it provides.
@menu
* Features:: How Guix will make your life brighter.
* Invoking guix package:: Package installation, removal, etc.
* Substitutes:: Downloading pre-built binaries.
* Packages with Multiple Outputs:: Single source package, multiple outputs.
* Invoking guix gc:: Running the garbage collector.
* Invoking guix pull:: Fetching the latest Guix and distribution.
* Invoking guix archive:: Exporting and importing store files.
@end menu
@node Features
@section Features
When using Guix, each package ends up in the @dfn{package store}, in its
own directory---something that resembles
@file{/gnu/store/xxx-package-1.2}, where @code{xxx} is a base32 string.
Instead of referring to these directories, users have their own
@dfn{profile}, which points to the packages that they actually want to
use. These profiles are stored within each user's home directory, at
@code{$HOME/.guix-profile}.
For example, @code{alice} installs GCC 4.7.2. As a result,
@file{/home/alice/.guix-profile/bin/gcc} points to
@file{/gnu/store/@dots{}-gcc-4.7.2/bin/gcc}. Now, on the same machine,
@code{bob} had already installed GCC 4.8.0. The profile of @code{bob}
simply continues to point to
@file{/gnu/store/@dots{}-gcc-4.8.0/bin/gcc}---i.e., both versions of GCC
coexist on the same system without any interference.
The @command{guix package} command is the central tool to manage
packages (@pxref{Invoking guix package}). It operates on those per-user
profiles, and can be used @emph{with normal user privileges}.
The command provides the obvious install, remove, and upgrade
operations. Each invocation is actually a @emph{transaction}: either
the specified operation succeeds, or nothing happens. Thus, if the
@command{guix package} process is terminated during the transaction,
or if a power outage occurs during the transaction, then the user's
profile remains in its previous state, and remains usable.
In addition, any package transaction may be @emph{rolled back}. So, if,
for example, an upgrade installs a new version of a package that turns
out to have a serious bug, users may roll back to the previous instance
of their profile, which was known to work well. Similarly, the global
system configuration is subject to transactional upgrades and roll-back
(@pxref{Using the Configuration System}).
All those packages in the package store may be @emph{garbage-collected}.
Guix can determine which packages are still referenced by the user
profiles, and remove those that are provably no longer referenced
(@pxref{Invoking guix gc}). Users may also explicitly remove old
generations of their profile so that the packages they refer to can be
collected.
@cindex reproducibility
@cindex reproducible builds
Finally, Guix takes a @dfn{purely functional} approach to package
management, as described in the introduction (@pxref{Introduction}).
Each @file{/gnu/store} package directory name contains a hash of all the
inputs that were used to build that package---compiler, libraries, build
scripts, etc. This direct correspondence allows users to make sure a
given package installation matches the current state of their
distribution. It also helps maximize @dfn{build reproducibility}:
thanks to the isolated build environments that are used, a given build
is likely to yield bit-identical files when performed on different
machines (@pxref{Invoking guix-daemon, container}).
@cindex substitutes
This foundation allows Guix to support @dfn{transparent binary/source
deployment}. When a pre-built binary for a @file{/gnu/store} item is
available from an external source---a @dfn{substitute}, Guix just
downloads it and unpacks it;
otherwise, it builds the package from source, locally
(@pxref{Substitutes}).
@node Invoking guix package
@section Invoking @command{guix package}
The @command{guix package} command is the tool that allows users to
install, upgrade, and remove packages, as well as rolling back to
previous configurations. It operates only on the user's own profile,
and works with normal user privileges (@pxref{Features}). Its syntax
is:
@example
guix package @var{options}
@end example
Primarily, @var{options} specifies the operations to be performed during
the transaction. Upon completion, a new profile is created, but
previous generations of the profile remain available, should the user
want to roll back.
For example, to remove @code{lua} and install @code{guile} and
@code{guile-cairo} in a single transaction:
@example
guix package -r lua -i guile guile-cairo
@end example
For each user, a symlink to the user's default profile is automatically
created in @file{$HOME/.guix-profile}. This symlink always points to the
current generation of the user's default profile. Thus, users can add
@file{$HOME/.guix-profile/bin} to their @code{PATH} environment
variable, and so on.
In a multi-user setup, user profiles must be stored in a place
registered as a @dfn{garbage-collector root}, which
@file{$HOME/.guix-profile} points to (@pxref{Invoking guix gc}). That
directory is normally
@code{@var{localstatedir}/profiles/per-user/@var{user}}, where
@var{localstatedir} is the value passed to @code{configure} as
@code{--localstatedir}, and @var{user} is the user name. It must be
created by @code{root}, with @var{user} as the owner. When it does not
exist, or is not owned by @var{user}, @command{guix package} emits an
error about it.
The @var{options} can be among the following:
@table @code
@item --install=@var{package} @dots{}
@itemx -i @var{package} @dots{}
Install the specified @var{package}s.
Each @var{package} may specify either a simple package name, such as
@code{guile}, or a package name followed by a hyphen and version number,
such as @code{guile-1.8.8}. If no version number is specified, the
newest available version will be selected. In addition, @var{package}
may contain a colon, followed by the name of one of the outputs of the
package, as in @code{gcc:doc} or @code{binutils-2.22:lib}
(@pxref{Packages with Multiple Outputs}). Packages with a corresponding
name (and optionally version) are searched for among the GNU
distribution modules (@pxref{Package Modules}).
@cindex propagated inputs
Sometimes packages have @dfn{propagated inputs}: these are dependencies
that automatically get installed along with the required package.
An example is the GNU MPC library: its C header files refer to those of
the GNU MPFR library, which in turn refer to those of the GMP library.
Thus, when installing MPC, the MPFR and GMP libraries also get installed
in the profile; removing MPC also removes MPFR and GMP---unless they had
also been explicitly installed independently.
Besides, packages sometimes rely on the definition of environment
variables for their search paths (see explanation of
@code{--search-paths} below). Any missing or possibly incorrect
environment variable definitions are reported here.
@c XXX: keep me up-to-date
Finally, when installing a GNU package, the tool reports the
availability of a newer upstream version. In the future, it may provide
the option of installing directly from the upstream version, even if
that version is not yet in the distribution.
@item --install-from-expression=@var{exp}
@itemx -e @var{exp}
Install the package @var{exp} evaluates to.
@var{exp} must be a Scheme expression that evaluates to a
@code{<package>} object. This option is notably useful to disambiguate
between same-named variants of a package, with expressions such as
@code{(@@ (gnu packages base) guile-final)}.
Note that this option installs the first output of the specified
package, which may be insufficient when needing a specific output of a
multiple-output package.
@item --remove=@var{package} @dots{}
@itemx -r @var{package} @dots{}
Remove the specified @var{package}s.
As for @code{--install}, each @var{package} may specify a version number
and/or output name in addition to the package name. For instance,
@code{-r glibc:debug} would remove the @code{debug} output of
@code{glibc}.
@item --upgrade[=@var{regexp} @dots{}]
@itemx -u [@var{regexp} @dots{}]
Upgrade all the installed packages. If one or more @var{regexp}s are
specified, upgrade only installed packages whose name matches a
@var{regexp}.
Note that this upgrades package to the latest version of packages found
in the distribution currently installed. To update your distribution,
you should regularly run @command{guix pull} (@pxref{Invoking guix
pull}).
@item --roll-back
Roll back to the previous @dfn{generation} of the profile---i.e., undo
the last transaction.
When combined with options such as @code{--install}, roll back occurs
before any other actions.
When rolling back from the first generation that actually contains
installed packages, the profile is made to point to the @dfn{zeroth
generation}, which contains no files apart from its own meta-data.
Installing, removing, or upgrading packages from a generation that has
been rolled back to overwrites previous future generations. Thus, the
history of a profile's generations is always linear.
@item --search-paths
@cindex search paths
Report environment variable definitions, in Bash syntax, that may be
needed in order to use the set of installed packages. These environment
variables are used to specify @dfn{search paths} for files used by some
of the installed packages.
For example, GCC needs the @code{CPATH} and @code{LIBRARY_PATH}